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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ _IN-chee_ or /ˈɪŋkiː/ _ING-kee_ ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC is a member. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Format and layers * 3 Examples * 4 InChIKey * 4.1 InChI resolvers * 5 Name * 6 Continuing development * 7 Adoption * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 External links * 10.1 Documentation and presentations * 10.2 Software and services OVERVIEWThe identifiers describe chemical substances in terms of _layers_ of information — the atoms and their bond connectivity, tautomeric information, isotope information, stereochemistry , and electronic charge information
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Software Developer
A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming , and testing of computer software . Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer , software analyst , and software engineer . According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development , and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become systems architects , those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system. (see also Debate over who is a software engineer ) In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above. In smaller development environments, a few people or even a single individual might handle the complete process. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Qualifications and Skills * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe word "software" was coined as a prank as early as 1953, but did not appear in print until the 1960's. Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC
UNIVAC
and IBM
IBM

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Software Release Life Cycle
A SOFTWARE RELEASE LIFE CYCLE is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software : ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Stages of development * 2.1 Pre-alpha * 2.2 Alpha * 2.3 Beta * 2.3.1 Open and closed beta * 2.4 Release candidate * 3 Release * 3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) * 3.2 General availability (GA) * 3.3 Release to web (RTW) * 4 Support * 4.1 End-of-life * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography HISTORYUsage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM
IBM
. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM
IBM
used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured. "C" test was the final test before general availability of the product. As software became a significant part of IBM's offerings, the alpha test terminology was used to denote the pre-announcement test and beta test was used to show product readiness for general availability. Martin Belsky, a manager on some of IBM's earlier software projects claimed to have invented the terminology
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers . The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 83.3%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (11.2%), and the varieties of Linux
Linux
is in third position (1.55%)
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Microsoft Windows
MICROSOFT WINDOWS, or simply WINDOWS, is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft
Microsoft
. It consists of several families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT
Windows NT
and Windows Embedded
Windows Embedded
; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded
Windows Embedded
Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server . Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x
Windows 9x
, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone
Windows Phone
. Microsoft
Microsoft
introduced an operating environment named _Windows_ on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS
MS-DOS
in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share , overtaking Mac OS , which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh
Macintosh
(eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993)
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Unix-like
A UNIX-LIKE (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *NIX) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification . A Unix-like application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix command or shell . There is no standard for defining the term, and some difference of opinion is possible as to the degree to which a given operating system or application is "Unix-like". The term can include free and open-source operating systems inspired by Bell Labs ' Unix or designed to emulate its features, commercial and proprietary work-alikes, and even versions based on the licensed UNIX source code (which may be sufficiently "Unix-like" to pass certification and bear the "UNIX" trademark). CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 History * 3 Categories * 4 Compatibility layers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITION The Open Group owns the UNIX trademark and administers the Single UNIX Specification, with the "UNIX" name being used as a certification mark . They do not approve of the construction "Unix-like", and consider it a misuse of their trademark
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Computing Platform
A COMPUTING PLATFORM is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system (OS), even a web browser or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed in it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture , an OS, or runtime libraries . A computing platform is the stage on which computer programs can run. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process , in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions; and as an assistance to the development process, in that they provide low-level functionality ready-made. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network . CONTENTS * 1 Components * 2 Operating system examples * 2.1 Desktop, laptop, server * 2.2 Mobile * 3 Software frameworks * 4 Hardware examples * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMPONENTSPlatforms may also include: * Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems . Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS; this is referred to as running on "bare metal ". * A browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser
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IA-32
IA-32 (short for "INTEL ARCHITECTURE, 32-BIT", sometimes also called I386 ) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture (ISA), first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985. IA-32 is the first incarnation of x86 that supports 32-bit computing; as a result, the "IA-32" term may be used as a metonym to refer to all x86 versions that support 32-bit computing. The IA-32 instruction set was introduced in the Intel 80386 microprocessor in 1985 and, as of 2017 , remains supported by contemporary PC microprocessors. Even though the instruction set has remained intact, the successive generations of microprocessors that run it have become much faster. Within various programming language directives, IA-32 is still sometimes referred to as the "i386" architecture. Intel is the inventor and the biggest supplier of IA-32 processors, and the second biggest supplier is AMD . For a while, VIA , Transmeta and others also produced IA-32 processors, but since the 2000s all manufacturers moved to the 64-bit variant of x86, x86-64
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X86-64
X86-64 (also known as X64, X86_64, AMD64 and INTEL 64 ) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set . It supports vastly larger amounts (theoretically, 264 bytes or 16 exabytes ) of virtual memory and physical memory than is possible on its 32-bit predecessors, allowing programs to store larger amounts of data in memory. x86-64 also provides 64-bit general-purpose registers and numerous other enhancements. It is fully backward compatible with 16-bit and 32-bit x86 code. (p13–14) Because the full x86 16-bit and 32-bit instruction sets remain implemented in hardware without any intervening emulation, existing x86 executables run with no compatibility or performance penalties, whereas existing applications that are recoded to take advantage of new features of the processor design may achieve performance improvements. Note that the ability of the processor to _execute_ code written using 16-bit compatible instructions does not mean 16-bit applications can still be _run_ on the processor. Some 64-bit operating systems may no longer be able to support 16-bit application programs. Specifically, all 64-bit versions of Windows are no longer able to execute 16-bit applications due to changes in support for this mode of operation
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Megabyte
The MEGABYTE is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB. The unit prefix _mega_ is a multiplier of 1000000 (106) in the International System of Units (SI). Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information. This definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities . However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes (220 B), a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes , in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte (MiB). Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 (1024000) bytes. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Examples of use * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONSThe megabyte is commonly used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name. As 1024 (210) approximates 1000 (103), roughly corresponding to the SI prefix kilo- , it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Software License
A SOFTWARE LICENSE is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law , with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain . A typical software license grants the licensee , typically an end-user , permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. CONTENTS* 1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law * 1.1 Ownership vs. licensing * 2 Proprietary software licenses * 3 Free and open-source software licenses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SOFTWARE LICENSES AND COPYRIGHT LAWMost distributed software can be categorized according to its license type (see table). Two common categories for software under copyright law, and therefore with licenses which grant the licensee specific rights, are proprietary software and free and open source software (FOSS)
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Identifier
An IDENTIFIER is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols stand for (represent) ideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a CODE or ID CODE. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be ARBITRARY IDS; they are arbitrarily assigned and have no greater meaning. (Sometimes identifiers are called "codes" even when they are actually arbitrary, whether because the speaker believes that they have deeper meaning or simply because he is speaking casually and imprecisely.) The unique identifier (UID) is an identifier that refers to only one instance—only one particular object in the universe
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Chemical Substance
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE also known as a PURE SUBSTANCE is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory . Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt (sodium chloride ) and refined sugar (sucrose ). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids , liquids , gases , or plasma , and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure . Chemical substances may be combined or converted to others by means of chemical reactions . Forms of energy , such as light and heat , are not matter, and are thus not "substances" in this regard
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU). IUPAC is registered in Zürich , Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina , United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director, currently Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry . Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies , national academies of sciences , or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations. IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature ) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds . Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities. These committees run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature , finding ways to bring chemistry to the world, and publishing works
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National Institute Of Standards And Technology
The NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
United States Department of Commerce
. Its mission is to promote innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into laboratory programs that include Nanoscale Science and Technology, Engineering, Information Technology , Neutron Research, Material Measurement, and Physical Measurement. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Bureau of Standards * 2 Constitution
Constitution
* 2.1 Metric system * 3 Organization * 3.1 Committees * 4 Projects * 4.1 Measurements and standards * 4.2 _Handbook 44_ * 4.3 Homeland security * 4.4 World Trade Center Collapse Investigation * 4.5 Election technology * 5 People * 6 Directors * 7 Controversial Backdoored NIST Standard * 8 Publications * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDThe Articles of Confederation , ratified by the colonies in 1781, contained the clause, "The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States"
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