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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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National Cancer Institute
The National Cancer
Cancer
Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The NCI coordinates the U.S. National Cancer
Cancer
Program and conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other activities related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer; the supportive care of cancer patients and their families; and cancer survivorship. On June 10, 2017, President Donald J. Trump announced his intent to appoint Norman Sharpless as director of the National Cancer
Cancer
Institute. NCI is the oldest and has the largest budget and research program of the 27 institutes and centers of the NIH. It fulfills the majority of its mission via an extramural program that provides grants for cancer research
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Electrical Charge
Electric charge
Electric charge
is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering, it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and, in chemistry, it is common to use the elementary charge (e as a unit). The symbol Q often denotes charge
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Stereochemical
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation. The study of stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers, which by definition have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. For this reason, it is also known as 3D chemistry—the prefix "stereo-" means "three-dimensionality".[1] An important branch of stereochemistry is the study of chiral molecules.[2] Stereochemistry
Stereochemistry
spans the entire spectrum of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and especially supramolecular chemistry
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Wildcard Character
In software, a wildcard character is a kind of placeholder represented by a single character, such as an asterisk (*), which can be interpreted as a number of literal characters or an empty string
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Hash Function
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of fixed size. The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes, digests, or simply hashes. One use is a data structure called a hash table, widely used in computer software for rapid data lookup. Hash functions accelerate table or database lookup by detecting duplicated records in a large file. An example is finding similar stretches in DNA sequences. They are also useful in cryptography. A cryptographic hash function allows one to easily verify that some input data maps to a given hash value, but if the input data is unknown, it is deliberately difficult to reconstruct it (or equivalent alternatives) by knowing the stored hash value
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SHA-256
A 2011 attack breaks preimage resistance for 57 out of 80 rounds of SHA-512, and 52 out of 64 rounds for SHA-256.[1] Pseudo-collision attack against up to 46 rounds of SHA-256.[2] SHA-256 and SHA-512 are prone to length extension attacks. By guessing the hidden part of the state, length extension attacks on SHA-224 and SHA-384 succeed with probability 2−(256−224) = 2−32 > 2−224 and 2−(512−384) = 2−128 > 2−384 respectively. SHA-2
SHA-2
(Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States
United States
National Security Agency (NSA).[3]
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Graphics Interchange Format
The Graphics Interchange Format (better known by its acronym GIF (/ɡɪf/ GHIF or /dʒɪf/ JIF)) is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the bulletin board service (BBS) provider CompuServe
CompuServe
led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987.[1] It has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability. The format supports up to 8 bits per pixel for each image, allowing a single image to reference its own palette of up to 256 different colors chosen from the 24-bit RGB
RGB
color space. It also supports animations and allows a separate palette of up to 256 colors for each frame
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Protonation
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.[1] Some examples includethe protonation of water by sulfuric acid:H2SO4 + H2O ⇌ H3O+ + HSO− 4the protonation of isobutene in the formation of a carbocation:(CH3)2C=CH2 + HBF4 ⇌ (CH3)3C+ + BF− 4the protonation of ammonia in the formation of ammonium chloride from ammonia and hydrogen chloride:NH3(g) + HCl(g) → NH4Cl(s) Protonation is a fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes. Some ions and molecules can undergo more than one protonation and are labeled polybasic, which is true of many biological macromolecules. Protonation and deprotonation (removal of a proton) occur in most acid-base reactions; they are the core of most acid-base reaction theories
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European Bioinformatics Institute
The European Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics
Institute (EMBL-EBI) is a centre for research and services in bioinformatics, and is part of European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL).Contents1 About 2 Funding 3 Resources at the EMBL-EBI 4 Other bioinformatics organisations 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAbout[edit] The roots of the EMBL-EBI lie in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library[3][4] (now known as EMBL-Bank), which was established in 1980 at the EMBL laboratories in Heidelberg, Germany and was the world's first nucleotide sequence database.[5] The original goal was to establish a central computer database of DNA sequences, to supplement sequences submitted to journals. What began as a modest task of abstracting information from literature soon became a major database activity with direct electronic submissions of data and the need for highly skilled informatics staff
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Media Type
A media type (also MIME type and content type)[1] is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments;[2] hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP[3] and document file formats such as HTML,[4] for similar purpose.Contents1 Naming1.1 Common examples 1.2 Registration trees1.2.1 Standards tree 1.2.2 Vendor tree 1.2.3 Personal or Vanity tree 1.2.4 Unregistered x
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ChemSpider
ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]Contents1 Database 2 Crowdsourcing 3 Searching 4 Chemistry document mark-up 5 History 6 Services6.1 SyntheticPages 6.2 Open PHACTS7 See also 8 ReferencesDatabase[edit] The database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including:EPA DSSTox[14][15] U.S
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Mixture
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically. A mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions and colloids.[1][2] Mixtures are one product of a mechanical blending or mixing chemical substances such as elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup.[3] Despite that there are no chemical changes to its constituents, the physical properties of a mixture, such as its melting point, may differ from those of the components. Some mixtures can be separated into their components by using physical (mechanical or thermal) means
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Markush Structure
A Markush structure
Markush structure
is a representation of chemical structure used to indicate a group of related chemical compounds. They are commonly used in chemistry texts and in patent claims. Markush structures are depicted with multiple independently variable groups, such as R groups in which a side chain can have varying structure.[1] This more general depiction of the molecule, versus detailing every atom in the molecule, is used to protect intellectual property. The company which files the patent makes a general claim for the usage of the molecule without revealing to their competitors the exact molecule for which they are declaring a useful application.[2]Contents1 In patents 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksIn patents[edit] Markush structures are named after Eugene A. Markush, founder of the Pharma Chemical Corporation in New Jersey
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