HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi)[1] primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads). Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons can also be delivered with varying effectiveness, but have never been deployed on ICBMs. Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. Early ICBMs had limited precision, which made them suitable for use only against the largest targets, such as cities. They were seen as a "safe" basing option, one that would keep the deterrent force close to home where it would be difficult to attack. Attacks against military targets (especially hardened ones) still demanded the use of a more precise manned bomber
[...More...]

picture info

Saturn (rocket Family)
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond. Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the launch vehicles for the Apollo moon program. Three versions were built and flown: Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn name was proposed by von Braun in October 1958 as a logical successor to the Jupiter series as well as the Roman god's powerful position.[1] In 1963, president John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
identified the Saturn I
Saturn I
SA-5 launch as being the point where US lift capability would surpass the Soviets, after having been behind since Sputnik
[...More...]

picture info

Institute For Chemistry And Biology Of The Marine Environment
The Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment
Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment
of the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
University of Oldenburg
(German: Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, abbreviated ICBM) is one of the marine science institutes at the German coast and the only university-based marine research institute in Lower Saxony,[1] Germany. The ICBM is located on the campus Wechloy in Oldenburg, with locations in Wilhelmshaven and on the island of Spiekeroog (in relation to the national park centre Wittbülten on the area of the Hermann Lietz School)
[...More...]

picture info

Wernher Von Braun
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr
Freiherr
von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later American, aerospace engineer,[3] and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the father of rocket technology and space science in the United States.[4] In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
during World War II. Following the war, von Braun was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip. He worked for the United States Army
United States Army
on an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) program and he developed the rockets that launched the United States' first space satellite Explorer 1
[...More...]

picture info

Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
[...More...]

picture info

Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special
Special
Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
and his V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
team, were recruited in post- Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959. Many were former members, and some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party.[1][2] The primary purpose for Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
was U.S. military advantage in the Russo–American Cold War, and the Space Race
[...More...]

picture info

Hap Arnold
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force. Arnold was an aviation pioneer, Chief of the Air Corps (1938–1941), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces, the only U.S. Air Force general to hold five-star rank, and the only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different U.S
[...More...]

picture info

Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
(/ˈspʊtnɪk/ or /ˈspʌtnɪk/; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite
Satellite
1")[5] was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,[6] and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War
[...More...]

picture info

Vostok (rocket Family)
Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka
R-7 Semyorka
ICBM
ICBM
designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) and the first manned spacecraft (Vostok) in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets. On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M
Vostok-2M
rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk during a fueling operation, killing 48 people
[...More...]

picture info

Cosmonautics Day
Cosmonautics Day
Cosmonautics Day
(Russian: День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia
Russia
and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.[1][2][3] In Poland
Poland
an "International Day of Aviation and Cosmonautics" (Polish: Międzynarodowy Dzień Lotnictwa i Kosmonautyki) is celebrated on the same day.[4] In 2011, 12 April was declared as the International Day of Human Space Flight in dedication of the first manned space flight made on 12 April 1961 by the 27-year-old Russian Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.[5] Gagarin circled the Earth for 1 hour and 48 minutes aboard the Vostok 1
Vostok 1
spacecraft.[6]Contents1 History 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The commemorative day was established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
one year later, on 9 April 1962
[...More...]

picture info

Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
[...More...]

Countervalue
In military doctrine, countervalue is the targeting of an opponent's assets which are of value but not actually a military threat, such as cities and civilian populations. Counterforce
Counterforce
is the targeting of an opponent's military forces and facilities.[1][2] The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., records the first use of the word in 1660 and the first use in the modern sense in 1965, where it is described as a "euphemism for attacking cities".Contents1 Theory 2 International law 3 See also 4 ReferencesTheory[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)In warfare, and in particular nuclear warfare, enemy targets can be divided into two general types: counterforce military targets and countervalue civilian targets
[...More...]

picture info

Circular Error Probable
In the military science of ballistics, circular error probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability[1]) is a measure of a weapon system's precision. It is defined as the radius of a circle, centered on the mean, whose boundary is expected to include the landing points of 50% of the rounds.[2][3] That is, if a given bomb design has a CEP of 100 metres (330 ft), when 100 are targeted at the same point, 50 will fall within a 100 m circle around their average impact point. (The distance between the target point and the average impact point is referred to as bias.)Contents1 Concept 2 Conversion between CEP, DRMS, 2DRMS, and R95 3 Use in popular culture 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksConcept[edit]20 hits distribution exampleThe original concept of CEP was based on a circular bivariate normal distribution (CBN) with CEP as a parameter of the CBN just as μ and σ are parameters of the normal distribution
[...More...]

picture info

Cosmonaut
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.[1][2] Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies
[...More...]

picture info

Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
Gagarin
(Russian: Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин[note 1], IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ɡɐˈɡarʲɪn]; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth
Earth
on 12 April 1961. Gagarin
Gagarin
became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honour. Vostok 1
Vostok 1
marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup crew to the Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
mission (which ended in a fatal crash). Gagarin later became deputy training director of the Cosmonaut
Cosmonaut
Training Centre outside Moscow, which was later named after him
[...More...]

Range (aeronautics)
The maximal total range is the maximum distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. The range can be seen as the cross-country ground speed multiplied by the maximum time in the air. The fuel time limit for powered aircraft is fixed by the fuel load and rate of consumption. When all fuel is consumed, the engines stop and the aircraft will lose its propulsion. Ferry range means the maximum range the aircraft can fly. This usually means maximum fuel load, optionally with extra fuel tanks and minimum equipment. It refers to transport of aircraft without any passengers or cargo. Combat range is the maximum range the aircraft can fly when carrying ordnance
[...More...]