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 Instrumental And Intrinsic Value Instrumental and intrinsic value are technical labels for two poles of an ancient dichotomy. People seem to reason differently about what they ought to do, seeking legitimate ends, and what they are able to do, seeking efficient means. When reasoning about ends, they apply the criterion intrinsic value. It identifies legitimate rules of behavior, such as the Ten Commandments. When reasoning about means they apply the criterion instrumental value. It identifies efficient tools, such as scientific and technological theories. Few question the existence of these two criteria, but their relative authority is in constant dispute. This article explains the meaning of and disputes about these two criteria for judging means and ends. Evidence is drawn from the work of four scholars [...More...] "Instrumental And Intrinsic Value" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse picture info Dichotomy A dichotomy /daɪˈkɒtəmi/ is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must bejointly exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, and mutually exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts.Such a partition is also frequently called a bipartition. The two parts thus formed are complements. In logic, the partitions are opposites if there exists a proposition such that it holds over one and not the other. Treating continuous variables or multicategorical variables as binary variables is called dichotomization [...More...] "Dichotomy" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Scientific Realism Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted. Within philosophy of science, it is often an answer to the question "how is the success of science to be explained?" The discussion on the success of science in this context centers primarily on the status of unobservable entities apparently talked about by scientific theories. Generally, those who are scientific realists assert that one can make valid claims about unobservables (viz., that they have the same ontological status) as observables, as opposed to instrumentalism.Contents1 Main features1.1 Characteristic claims2 History 3 Arguments for and against scientific realism3.1 No miracles argument 3.2 Pessimistic induction 3.3 Constructivist epi [...More...] "Scientific Realism" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse picture info Special Special Special or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic Special Special [...More...] "Special" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Value Theory Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else. This investigation began in ancient philosophy, where it is called axiology or ethics. Early philosophical investigations sought to understand good and evil and the concept of "the good". Today, much of value theory aspires to the scientifically empirical, recording what people do value and attempting to understand why they value it in the context of psychology, sociology, and economics.[1] At the general level, there is a difference between moral and natural goods. Moral goods are those that have to do with the conduct of persons, usually leading to praise or blame. Natural goods, on the other hand, have to do with objects, not persons [...More...] "Value Theory" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse picture info Value (ethics) In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. It may be described as treating actions as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and living a good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively high valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" (adjective sense), and that an action of low value, or relatively low in value, may be regarded as "bad".[citation needed] What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good" (noun sense). Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be [...More...] "Value (ethics)" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Instrumental And Value-rational Action Daily life requires people to decide constantly how they ought to act, and they have been observed to decide in two ways. Sometimes they decide to re-act without reasoning, responding to emotion or habit. And sometimes they decide to act after reasoning--also in two ways. Humans reason about means to achieve their ends, and about ends they ought to pursue. Actions explained by reasoning about means are often labeled "instrumentally rational". They are supposed to be efficient tools for achieving consequences. Actions explained by reasoning about ends are often labeled "value-rational". They are rules of behavior, legitimate in themselves, such as "Honesty is the best policy" or "Justice requires taking an eye for an eye." Evidence of the distinction between these two kinds of rational action is everywhere [...More...] "Instrumental And Value-rational Action" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Instrumental And Value Rationality Instrumental and value-rationality are modern labels for the ancient belief that human reasoning is bipolar, split in two. Human groups must be able to reason about moral ends--what they ought to do—and, separately, about efficient means--what they are capable of doing to achieve their ends. Humans learn what is true by reasoning instrumentally. They learn what is just by reasoning value-rationally Following the usage of German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920), reasoning about means has been labeled instrumental rationality and reasoning about ends has been labeled value rationality [...More...] "Instrumental And Value Rationality" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Fact-value Distinction The fact–value distinction is the modern label for an ancient belief that rational human knowledge is bipolar—split in two. Human groups must have collective knowledge of means to achieve their ends, and knowledge of ends to meet their needs. Fact is the generic label for means. it is instrumental knowledge of tools that "work"--like science and technology. It stands for the idea of truth. Value is the generic label for ends. It is moral knowledge of rules of "right and wrong"--like "Honesty is the best policy." It stands for the idea of justice. Belief that collective knowledge is bipolar grew out of philosophers' attempts to understand how humans correlate group behavior to maintain social life. Bipolar knowledge is produced by bipolar reasoning. Thinkers imputed factual instrumental knowledge to heads or minds or brains. They imputed emotional moral knowledge to hearts or guts or souls [...More...] "Fact-value Distinction" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Disenchantment In social science, disenchantment (German: Entzauberung) is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society [...More...] "Disenchantment" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Instrumentalism Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century. It is named for its premise that theories are tools or instruments able to identify reliable means-end relations found in experience, but not to identify realities beyond experience.[1] Its premises and practices were most clearly stated by two philosophers, John Dewey John Dewey (1859-1952) and Karl Popper Karl Popper (1902-1994). Independently, they defined the school quite similarly, but their judgments of its premises were irreconcilable. Dewey was a practitioner of instrumentalism. He held that means-end relations can be discovered by reasoning inductively and deductively about experience. Popper was a critic of the school. He insisted that induction is not scientifically valid, and that realities can be known without experience [...More...] "Instrumentalism" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Logical Positivism Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful [...More...] "Logical Positivism" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Anjan Chakravartty Anjan Chakravartty is an analytic philosopher and a professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. His work focuses on topics in the philosophy of science, metaphysics, and epistemology.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife He received his BSc in Biophysics and MA in philosophy from the University of Toronto. Chakravartty obtained his PhD at the University of Cambridge and previously taught at the University of Toronto. He is the Director of the John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values at Notre Dame, and the Editor in Chief of the journal Studies in History and Philosophy of Science.[1][2] From July 1st 2018, he will be Appignani Foundation Chair at University of Miami.[3] Works Chakravartty's book A Metaphysics Metaphysics for Scientific Realism: Knowing the Unobservable (Cambridge University Press) puts forward the concept of semirealism [...More...] "Anjan Chakravartty" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse picture info Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (/ˈveɪbər/;[4] German: [ˈmaks ˈveːbɐ]; 21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist. His ideas profoundly influenced social theory and social research.[5] Weber is often cited, with Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx, as among the three founders of sociology.[6][7][8][9][10] Weber was a key proponent of methodological antipositivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive (rather than purely empiricist) means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions [...More...] "Max Weber" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse Selective Realism Entity realism (also selective realism),[1] sometimes equated with referential realism,[2] is a philosophical position within the debate about scientific realism. It is a variation of realism (independently proposed by Stanford School philosophers Nancy Cartwright and Ian Hacking in 1983) that restricts warranted belief to only certain entities.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Criticism 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesOverview Whereas traditional scientific realism argues that our best scientific theories are true, or approximately true, or closer to the truth than their predecessors, entity realism does not commit itself to judgments concerning the truth of scientific theories. Instead, entity realism claims that the theoretical entities that feature in scientific theories, e.g. 'electrons', should be regarded as real if and only if they refer to phenomena that can be routinely used to create effects in domains that can be investigated independently [...More...] "Selective Realism" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse picture info Jacques Ellul Jacques Ellul Jacques Ellul (French: [ɛlyl]; January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher, sociologist, lay theologian, and professor who was a noted Christian anarchist. Ellul was a longtime Professor of History and the Sociology Sociology of Institutions on the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences at the University of Bordeaux. A prolific writer, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime, many of which discussed propaganda, the impact of technology on society, and the interaction between religion and politics. The dominant theme of his work proved to be the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technology [...More...] "Jacques Ellul" on: Wikipedia Google Yahoo Parouse
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