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Instant Noodle
Instant noodles are sold in a precooked and dried noodle block, with flavoring powder and/or seasoning oil. The flavoring is usually in a separate packet, although in the case of cup noodles the flavoring is often loose in the cup. Some instant noodle products are seal packed; these can be reheated or eaten straight from the packet/container. Dried noodle blocks are cooked or soaked in boiling water before eating. The main ingredients used in dried noodles are usually wheat flour, palm oil, and salt. Common ingredients in the flavoring powder are salt, monosodium glutamate, seasoning, and sugar
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Supermercados Disco (Argentina)
Supermercados Disco is an Argentine supermarket chain. It is one of many supermarket chains in South America to be owned by Cencosud.[1] The Uruguayan company Supermercados Disco del Uruguay is an unrelated supermarket chain, but the Argentine chain was, in their beginning, part of the Uruguayan conglomerate and used the Uruguayan chain's logo.[2] History[edit] Supermercados Disco opened in 1961 in Argentina for the first time;[1] one year after its Uruguayan namesake. In 1967, an Uruguayan family bought 50% of the Argentine brand's stock, increasing their interest to 100% in 1981
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Carbohydrates
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Sodium Carbonate
Sodium
Sodium
carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline decahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Pure sodium carbonate is a white, odorless powder that is hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air). It has a strongly alkaline taste, and forms a moderately basic solution in water. Sodium
Sodium
carbonate is well known domestically for its everyday use as a water softener. Historically it was extracted from the ashes of plants growing in sodium-rich soils, such as vegetation from the Middle East, kelp from Scotland and seaweed from Spain
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Potassium Carbonate
Potassium
Potassium
carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol)[2] which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid. Potassium
Potassium
carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.Contents1 History 2 Production 3 Applications 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksHistory[edit] Potassium
Potassium
carbonate is the primary component of potash and the more refined pearl ash or salts of tartar. Historically, pearl ash was created by baking potash in a kiln to remove impurities. The fine, white powder remaining was the pearl ash
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Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid
(also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid refers to phosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix ortho- is used to distinguish the acid from related phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic acid, which, when pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The conjugate base of phosphoric acid is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, H 2PO− 4, which in turn has a conjugate base of hydrogen phosphate, HPO2− 4, which has a conjugate base of phosphate, PO3− 4
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Buckwheat
Buckwheat
Buckwheat
( Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum
esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat,[2] is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum
tataricum, a domesticated food plant common in Asia, but not as common in Europe
Europe
or North America, is also referred to as buckwheat. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel, knotweed, and rhubarb. Because its seeds are eaten and rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal
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Potato Starch
Potato
Potato
starch is starch extracted from potatoes. The cells of the root tubers of the potato plant contain starch grains (leucoplasts). To extract the starch, the potatoes are crushed; the starch grains are released from the destroyed cells. The starch is then washed out and dried to powder. Potato
Potato
starch contains typical large oval spherical granules ranging in size between 5 and 100 μm. Potato
Potato
starch is a very refined starch, containing minimal protein or fat
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Amylose
Amylose
Amylose
is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds. It is one of the two components of starch, making up approximately 20-30%. The other component is amylopectin.[2] Because of its tightly packed helical structure, amylose is more resistant to digestion than other starch molecules and is therefore an important form of resistant starch.[3]Contents1 Structure 2 Physical properties 3 Function 4 Recent studies 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] Amylose
Amylose
is made up of α(1→4) bound glucose molecules. The carbon atoms on glucose are numbered, starting at the aldehyde (C=O) carbon, so, in amylose, the 1-carbon on one glucose molecule is linked to the 4-carbon on the next glucose molecule (α(1→4) bonds).[4] The structural formula of amylose is pictured at right
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Guar Gum
Guar gum, also called guaran, is a substance made from guar beans which has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in various industries, traditionally the food industry and, increasingly, the hydraulic fracturing industry. The guar seeds are dehusked, milled and screened to obtain the guar gum.[1] It is typically produced as a free-flowing, off-white powder. It is classed as a galactomannan.Contents1 Production and trade 2 Properties2.1 Chemical composition 2.2 Solubility and viscosity 2.3 Thickening 2.4 Ice crystal growth 2.5 Grading3 Manufacturing process 4 Industrial applications 5 Food applications 6 Nutritional and medicinal effects6.1 Allergies 6.2 Dioxin contamination7 Further reading 8 References 9 External linksProduction and trade[edit] The guar bean is principally grown in India, Pakistan, U.S., Australia and Africa
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Junk Food
Junk food
Junk food
is a pejorative term for food containing high levels of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.[1][2][3] Junk food
Junk food
can also refer to high protein food like meat prepared with saturated fat
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Fat
Fat
Fat
is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.[1] Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol. The terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are often confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. "Oil" normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while "fat" (in the strict sense) may specifically refer to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat
Fat
is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans)
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Starch Gelatinization
Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water. Water acts as a plasticizer. Three main processes happen to the starch granule: granule swelling, crystal or double helical melting, and amylose leaching.During heating, water is first absorbed in the amorphous space of starch, which leads to a swelling phenomenon.[1] Water then enters via amorphous regions the tightly bound areas of double helical structures of amylopectin. At ambient temperatures these crystalline regions do not allow water to enter. Heat causes such regions to become diffuse, the amylose chains begin to dissolve, to separate into an amorphous form and the number and size of crystalline regions decreases
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Dietary Fiber
Dietary fiber
Dietary fiber
or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components:[1]Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active by-products, and can be prebiotic and viscous. This delays gastric emptying which, in humans, can result in an extended feeling of fullness. Insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provides bulking, or it can be fermented in the large intestine
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Vitamin
A vitamin is an organic compound and an essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when the organism cannot make the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term vitamin is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, vitamin C is a vitamin for humans, but not most other animals which make enough internally. Vitamin D
Vitamin D
is essential only for people who do not have adequate skin exposure to sunlight, because the ultraviolet light in sunlight normally promotes synthesis of vitamin D
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