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Inner City
The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis. Inner city areas tend to have higher population densities than outer suburbs, with more of the population living inside multi-floored townhouses and apartment buildings. In the United States the term "inner city" is often used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center and nearby areas—with the additional connotation of impoverished minority neighborhoods. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts. Some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification, especially since the 1990s. Such connotations are less common in other countries, where deprived areas may be located in outlying parts of cities
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Belo Horizonte
Belo Horizonte (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌbɛloɾiˈzõtʃi]; Beautiful Horizon) is the sixth largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth largest city in South America and the eighteenth largest city in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, ranked as the third most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and the seventeenth most populous in the Americas. Belo Horizonte is the capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil's second most populous state. It is the first planned modern city in Brazil. The region was first settled in the early 18th century, but the city as it is known today was planned and constructed in the 1890s, in order to replace Ouro Preto as the capital of Minas Gerais. The city features a mixture of contemporary and classical buildings, and is home to several modern Brazilian architectural icons, most notably the Pampulha Complex
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Black Flight
Black flight is a term applied to the out-migration of African Americans from predominantly black or mixed inner-city areas in the United States to suburbs and outlying edge cities of newer home construction. While more attention has been paid to this since the 1990s, the movement of blacks to the suburbs has been underway for some time, with nine million people having migrated from 1960 to 2000. Their goals have been similar to those of the white middle class, whose out-migration was called white flight: newer housing, better schools for their children, and attractive environments. From 1990 to 2000, the percentage of African Americans who lived in the suburbs increased to a total of 39 percent, rising 5 percent in that decade
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Special
Special or the specials or variation, may refer to:

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Zürich
Zürich or Zurich (/ˈzjʊərɪk/ ZEWR-ik; see below for other names) is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich. The municipality has approximately 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways, roads, and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the largest and busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum
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Campo Grande
Campo Grande (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈkɐ̃pu ˈɡɾɐ̃dʒi], Great Field) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena ("Swarthy City" in Portuguese) because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil. It has a population of 796,252, according to a 2011 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people (2010). The region where the city is located was in the past a waypoint for travellers who wanted to go from São Paulo or Minas Gerais to northern Mato Grosso by land. In the early 1900s a railway was completed connecting Campo Grande to Corumbá, on the Bolivian border, and to Bauru, São Paulo
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Palmas, Tocantins
Palmas (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpawmɐs], Palm trees) is the capital and largest city in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, newly organized under the 1988 constitution. According to IBGE estimates from 2017, the city had 286,787 inhabitants. Palmas is located at the state geographic centre at an average altitude of 230 m (755 ft). The city is located between these hills and the Tocantins River. In the east, Palmas is bordered by the Serra do Lajeado. Palmas has a metropolitan area with 471,639 inhabitants on the side of Palmas Lake. Palmas was founded in 1990 and developed from the ground up in a former agricultural area as the capital of the newest Brazilian state Tocantins. This was organized under the new 1988 Brazilian Constitution. It was intended to develop a relatively undeveloped area of the nation to provide better jobs for people
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Car
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of cars say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became widely available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort, and a variety of lights
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Bid Rent Theory
The bid rent theory is a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre. This is based upon the idea that retail establishments wish to maximize their profitability, so they are much more willing to pay more for land close to the CBD and less for land further away from this area
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Inner City Press
Inner City Press is a public interest organization founded by Matthew Lee, who serves as Executive Director. Inner City Press is best known for its investigations of the banking industry's treatment of low-income communities of color, at first within the United States and more recently around the world, for example with regard to HSBC, Deutsche Bank and others
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Brazil
Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this soundlisten ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities
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Skid Row
A skid row or skid road is an impoverished area, typically urban, in English-speaking North America whose inhabitants are people "on the skids;" this specifically refers to the poor, the homeless, or others either considered disreputable or forgotten by society. A skid row may be anything from an impoverished urban district to a red-light district to a gathering area for the homeless. In general, skid row areas are inhabited or frequented by individuals marginalized by poverty or through drug addiction. Urban areas considered skid rows are marked by high vagrancy, and they often feature cheap taverns, dilapidated buildings, and drug dens as well as other features of urban blight
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Urban Sprawl
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization. In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term also relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe the term "peri-urbanisation" is often used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, although the term urban sprawl is currently being used by the European Environment Agency. There is widespread disagreement about what constitutes sprawl and how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area
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Urban Structure
Urban structure is the arrangement of land use in urban areas, in other words, how the land use of a city is set out. Urban planners, economists, and geographers have developed several models that explain where different types of people and businesses tend to exist within the urban setting
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web, founded by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco. Its founders, Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat developed the Wayback Machine with the intention of providing "universal access to all knowledge" by preserving archived copies of defunct webpages. Since its launch in 2001, over 452 billion pages have been added to the archive
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Brookings Institution
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system." Brookings has five research programs at its Washington, D.C
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