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Infraorder (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Taxonomic Order
Taxonomic sequence (also known as systematic, phyletic or taxonomic order) is a sequence followed in listing of taxa which aids ease of use and roughly reflects the evolutionary relationships among the taxa. Taxonomic sequences can exist for taxa within any rank, that is, a list of families, genera, species can each have a sequence. Early biologists used the concept of "age" or "primitiveness" of the groups in question to derive an order of arrangement, with "older" or more "primitive" groups being listed first and more recent or "advanced" ones last. A modern understanding of evolutionary biology has brought about a more robust framework for the taxonomic ordering of lists. A list may be seen as a rough one-dimensional representation of a phylogenetic tree. Taxonomic sequences are essentially heuristic devices that help in arrangements of linear systems such as books and information retrieval systems
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Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
is an extinct clade of procolophonomorph parareptiles from the early Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch (middle Sakmarian stage) to the latest Triassic
Triassic
period (latest Rhaetian
Rhaetian
stage) of Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America
North America
and South America.[1][2] Phylogeny[edit] Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
was named Michael S. Y. Lee in 1995, and defined as the node-based taxon formed by Lanthanosuchoidea
Lanthanosuchoidea
and Pareiasauria
Pareiasauria
and all its descendants.[3] The clade Ankyramorpha
Ankyramorpha
named by the paleontologists Michael deBraga and Robert R
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Boreoeutheria
Boreoeutheria
Boreoeutheria
(synonymous with Boreotheria) (Greek: βόρειο "north" + ευ "good" + θεριό "beast") is a clade (magnorder) of placental mammals that is composed of the sister taxa Laurasiatheria (most hoofed mammals, most pawed carnivores, and several other groups) and Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
(Supraprimates)
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Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
(synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.Contents1 Evolutionary relationships 2 Organization 3 References 4 Further readingEvolutionary relationships[edit] The Euarchontoglires
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Parareptilia
Parareptilia
Parareptilia
("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida. Whether the term is valid depends on the phylogenetic position of turtles, whose relationships to other reptilian groups are still uncertain. History of classification[edit] The name Parareptilia
Parareptilia
was coined by Olson in 1947 to refer to an extinct group of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
reptiles, as opposed to the rest of the reptiles or Eureptilia
Eureptilia
("true reptiles").Life restoration of Nyctiphruretus
Nyctiphruretus
acudensThe name fell into disuse until it was revived by cladistic studies, to refer to those anapsids that were thought to be unrelated to turtles. Gauthier et al
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Euarchonta
Scandentia PrimatomorphaThe Euarchonta
Euarchonta
are a proposed grandorder of mammals containing four orders: the Scandentia
Scandentia
or treeshrews, the Dermoptera
Dermoptera
or colugos, the extinct Plesiadapiformes, and the Primates. The term "Euarchonta" (Waddell et al. 1999, meaning "true ancestors") appeared in 1999, when molecular evidence suggested that the morphology-based Archonta
Archonta
should be trimmed down to exclude Chiroptera (Waddell et al. 1999b). Further DNA sequence analyses (Madsen et al. 2001, Murphy et al., 2001 Waddell et al. 2001) supported the Euarchonta
Euarchonta
hypothesis. Despite multiple papers pointing out that some mitochondrial sequences showed unusual properties (particularly murid rodents and hedgehogs) and were likely distorting the overall tree (Sullivan and Swofford 1997, Waddell et al. 1999c), and despite Waddell et al
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Primatomorpha
The Primatomorpha
Primatomorpha
are a mirorder of mammals containing two orders: the Dermoptera
Dermoptera
or colugos and the Primates
Primates
(Plesiadapiformes, Tarsiiformes, Simiiformes). The term "Primatomorpha" first appeared in the general scientific literature in 1991 (K.C. Beard) and 1992 (Kalandadze, Rautian). Major DNA sequence analyses of predominantly nuclear sequences (Murphy et al., 2001) support the Euarchonta
Euarchonta
hypothesis, while a major study investigating mitochondrial sequences supports a different tree topology (Arnason et al., 2002). A study investigating retrotransposon presence/absence data has claimed strong support for Euarchonta (Kriegs et al., 2007). Some interpretations of the molecular data link Primates
Primates
and Dermoptera
Dermoptera
in a clade (mirorder) known as Primatomorpha, which is the sister of Scandentia
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Primates
A primate (/ˈpraɪmeɪt/ ( listen) PRY-mayt) is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").[2][3] In taxonomy, primates include two distinct lineages, strepsirrhines and haplorhines.[1] Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal. With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent,[4] most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia.[5] They range in typical size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb)
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Procolophonomorpha
Procolophonomorpha
Procolophonomorpha
is an order or clade of early reptiles that appeared during the Middle Permian. It constitutes a diverse assemblage that includes a number of lizard-like forms, as well as more diverse types such as the pareiasaurs. The most important subclade, Procolophonia, is traditionally thought to be ancestral to (and hence to include) turtles. Lee 1995, 1996, 1997 argues that turtles evolved from pareiasaurs, but this view is by no means held unanimously
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Haplorrhini
Haplorhini
Haplorhini
(the haplorhines or the "dry-nosed" primates, the Greek name means "simple-nosed") is a suborder of primates containing the tarsiers and the simians ( Simiiformes
Simiiformes
or anthropoids), as sister of the Strepsirrhini. The name is sometimes spelled Haplorrhini.[2] The simians include catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes including humans), and the platyrrhines (New World monkeys). The extinct omomyids, which are considered to be the most basal haplorhines, are believed to be more closely related to the tarsiers than to other haplorhines. The exact relationship is not yet fully established – Williams, Kay and Kirk (2010) prefer the view that tarsiers and simians share a common ancestor, and that common ancestor shares a common ancestor with the omomyids, citing evidence from analysis by Bajpal et al
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Procolophonia
The Procolophonia
Procolophonia
are a suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian
Permian
till the end of the Triassic
Triassic
period. They were originally included as a suborder of the Cotylosauria
Cotylosauria
(later renamed Captorhinida
Captorhinida
Carroll 1988) but are now considered a clade of Parareptilia
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Simiiformes
The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans). The simian and tarsier lines of haplorhines diverged about 60 million years ago (during the Cenozoic era). Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys
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Catarrhini
Cercopithecoidea
Cercopithecoidea
( Old World
Old World
monkeys) Hominoidea
Hominoidea
(apes) Catarrhini
Catarrhini
is one of the two subdivisions of the simians, the other being the plathyrrhine ( New World
New World
monkeys). The Catarrhini
Catarrhini
contains the Old World
Old World
monkeys and the apes; the latter of which are in turn further divided into the lesser apes or gibbons and the great apes, consisting of the orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The Catarrhine are all native to Africa
Africa
and Asia
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is also informally known as the ICZN Code, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate:How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature[1] Which name must be used in case of name conflicts How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature. This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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Michael Benton
Michael James "Mike" Benton[5] FRS[3] (born 8 April 1956) is a British palaeontologist, and professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.[6] His published work has mostly concentrated on the evolution of Triassic reptiles but he has also worked on extinction events and faunal changes in the fossil record.[4][7][8]Contents1 Education 2 Research 3 Awards and honours 4 Publications 5 References 6 External linksEducation[edit] Benton was educated at the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
and Newcastle University where he was awarded a PhD in 1981. Research[edit] Benton's research investigates palaeobiology, palaeontology, and macroevolution.[4][9][10] Benton is the author of several palaeontology text books (e.g
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