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Infraorder (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Procolophonomorpha
PROCOLOPHONOMORPHA is an order or clade of early reptiles that appeared during the Middle Permian. It constitutes a diverse assemblage that includes a number of lizard-like forms, as well as more diverse types such as the pareiasaurs. The most important subclade, Procolophonia , is traditionally thought to be ancestral to (and hence to include) turtles . Lee 1995, 1996, 1997 argues that turtles evolved from pareiasaurs, but this view is by no means held unanimously. Rieppel and deBraga 1996 and deBraga and Rieppel, 1997 argue that turtles evolved from sauropterygians . CLASSIFICATIONThe following cladogram is simplified after the phylogenetic analysis of MacDougall and Reisz (2014) and shows the placement of Procolophonomorpha within Parareptilia and its interrelationships. Relationships within bolded terminal clades are not shown
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Primates
A PRIMATE (/ˈpraɪmeɪt/ ( listen ) PRY-mayt ) is a mammal of the order PRIMATES ( Latin : "prime, first rank"). In taxonomy , primates include two distinct lineages, strepsirrhines and haplorhines . Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests ; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal . With the exception of humans , who inhabit every continent, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia. They range in size from Madame Berthe\'s mouse lemur , which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern gorilla , weighing over 200 kg (440 lb); that is, without taking into account the weight of particular human individuals, reaching up to 635 kg (1,400 lb)
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Haplorrhini
HAPLORHINI (the HAPLORHINES or the "dry-nosed" primates, the Greek name means "simple-nosed") is a clade containing the tarsiers and the simians (or anthropoids). The name is sometimes spelled HAPLORRHINI. The simians include catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes including humans ), and the platyrrhines (New World monkeys ). The extinct omomyids , which are considered to be the most basal haplorhines, are believed to be more closely related to the tarsiers than to other haplorhines. Haplorhines share a number of derived features that distinguish them from the strepsirrhine "wet-nosed" primates (whose Greek name means "curved nose"), the other suborder of primates from which they diverged some 63 million years ago. The haplorhines, including tarsiers, have all lost the function of the terminal enzyme that manufactures Vitamin C , while the strepsirrhines, like most other orders of mammals, have retained this enzyme and the ability to manufacture vitamin C
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Procolophonia
The PROCOLOPHONIA are a suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian till the end of the Triassic period, and are thought to be extinct today. They were originally included as a suborder of the Cotylosauria (later renamed Captorhinida Carroll 1988) but are now considered a clade of Parareptilia . They are closely related to other generally lizard-like Permian reptiles such as the Millerettidae , Bolosauridae , Acleistorhinidae , and Lanthanosuchidae , all of which are included under the Anapsida or "Parareptiles" (as opposed to the Eureptilia ). CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Relationship to turtles * 3 References * 4 External links CLASSIFICATIONThere are two main groups of Procolophonia, the small, lizard-like Procolophonoidea , and the Pareiasauroidea , which include the large, armoured Pareiasauridae
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Simiiformes
The SIMIANS (infraorder SIMIIFORMES) are monkeys , cladistically including the apes : the New World monkeys or platyrrhines , and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes . The simian line and the tarsier line diverged about 60 million years ago (during the Cenozoic era ). Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys. The remaining simians (catarrhines) split 25 million years ago into apes and Old World monkeys
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Primatomorpha
The PRIMATOMORPHA are a mirorder of mammals containing two orders : the Dermoptera or colugos and the Primates (Plesiadapiformes , Tarsiiformes , Simiiformes ). The term "Primatomorpha" first appeared in the general scientific literature in 1991 (K.C. Beard) and 1992 (Kalandadze, Rautian). Major DNA sequence analyses of predominantly nuclear sequences (Murphy et al., 2001) support the Euarchonta hypothesis, while a major study investigating mitochondrial sequences supports a different tree topology (Arnason et al., 2002). A study investigating retrotransposon presence/absence data has claimed strong support for Euarchonta (Kriegs et al., 2007). Some interpretations of the molecular data link Primates and Dermoptera in a clade (mirorder ) known as Primatomorpha, which is the sister of Scandentia . Primates probably split from the Dermoptera sister group 79.6 million years ago during the Cretaceous
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Euarchonta
Scandentia Primatomorpha The EUARCHONTA are a proposed grandorder of mammals containing four orders : the Scandentia or treeshrews, the Dermoptera or colugos, the extinct Plesiadapiformes , and the Primates . The term "Euarchonta" (meaning "true ancestors") first appeared in the general scientific literature in 1999, when molecular evidence suggested that the morphology -based Archonta should be trimmed down to exclude Chiroptera . Major DNA sequence analyses of predominantly nuclear sequences (Murphy et al., 2001) support the Euarchonta hypothesis, while a major study investigating mitochondrial sequences supports a different tree topology (Arnason et al., 2002). A study investigating retrotransposon presence/absence data has claimed strong support for Euarchonta (Kriegs et al., 2007). Some interpretations of the molecular data link Primates and Dermoptera in a clade (mirorder ) known as Primatomorpha , which is the sister of Scandentia
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Prefix
A PREFIX is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a PREFORMATIVE, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed. Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional , creating a new form of the word with the same basic meaning and same lexical category (but playing a different role in the sentence), or derivational , creating a new word with a new semantic meaning and sometimes also a different lexical category . Prefixes, like all other affixes, are usually bound morphemes . In English , there are no inflectional prefixes; English uses suffixes instead for that purpose
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Boreoeutheria
BOREOEUTHERIA (synonymous with BOREOTHERIA) (Greek: βόρειο "north " + ευ "good" + θεριό "beast") is a clade (magnorder ) of placental mammals that is composed of the sister taxa Laurasiatheria (most hoofed mammals, most pawed carnivores, and several other groups) and Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
(Supraprimates). It is now well supported by DNA sequence analyses, as well as retrotransposon presence or absence data . The earliest known fossils belonging to this group date to about 65 million years ago, shortly after the K-Pg extinction event , though molecular data suggest they may have originated earlier, during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. With the exception of rhinoceroses and cetaceans , male members of the clade share the distinction of external testicles
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Euarchontoglires
EUARCHONTOGLIRES (synonymous with SUPRAPRIMATES) is a clade and a superorder of mammals , the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents , lagomorphs , treeshrews , colugos and primates . CONTENTS * 1 Evolutionary relationships * 2 Organization * 3 References * 4 Further reading EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPSThe Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
clade is based on DNA
DNA
sequence analyses and retrotransposon markers that combine the clades Glires (Rodentia + Lagomorpha) and Euarchonta ( Scandentia + Primates
Primates
+ Dermoptera). So far, few if any anatomical features that support Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
have been recognized, nor does any strong evidence from anatomy support alternative hypotheses
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Parareptilia
PARAREPTILIA ("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida . Whether the term is valid depends on the phylogenetic position of turtles , whose relationships to other reptilian groups are still uncertain. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATIONThe name Parareptilia was coined by Olson in 1947 to refer to an extinct group of Paleozoic reptiles, as opposed to the rest of the reptiles or Eureptilia ("true reptiles"). Life restoration of Nyctiphruretus acudens The name fell into disuse until it was revived by cladistic studies, to refer to those anapsids that were thought to be unrelated to turtles. Gauthier et al
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Hallucicrania
HALLUCICRANIA is an extinct clade of procolophonomorph parareptiles from the early Cisuralian epoch (middle Sakmarian stage) to the latest Triassic period (latest Rhaetian stage) of Africa , Antarctica , Asia , Australia , Europe , North America and South America . PHYLOGENYHallucicrania was named Michael S. Y. Lee in 1995 , and defined as the node-based taxon formed by Lanthanosuchoidea and Pareiasauria and all its descendants. The clade ANKYRAMORPHA named by the paleontologists Michael deBraga and Robert R. Reisz in 1996 was given nearly the same definition - "the most recent common ancestor of Procolophonia and Lanthanosuchoidea and all its descendants". Under all current phylogenetic analyses , both clades contain the same species, and thus Ankyramorpha should be considered a junior synonym of Hallucicrania - a fact ignored in most of the recent publications, which keep applying Ankyramorpha for this clade
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Catarrhini
Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) Hominoidea (apes) CATARRHINI is one of the two subdivisions of the simians , the other being the plathyrrhine (New World monkeys ). The Catarrhini contains the Old World monkeys and the apes ; the latter of which are in turn further divided into the lesser apes or gibbons and the great apes , consisting of the orangutans , gorillas , chimpanzees , and humans . The Catarrhine are all native to Africa and Asia . Members of this parvorder are called CATARRHINES. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Classification and evolution * 2.1 Cladogram * 3 References DESCRIPTIONThe technical distinction between the New World platyrrhines and Old World catarrhines is the shape of their noses. The platyrrhines (from Ancient Greek platu-, "flat", and rhin-, "nose") have nostrils which face sideways. The catarrhines (from Ancient Greek kata-, "down", and rhin-, "nose") have nostrils that face downwards
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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