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Information
INFORMATION is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge , as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon , for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer . At its most fundamental level, information is any propagation of cause and effect within a system. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of anything.That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message . Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs , or transmitted via a sequence of signals ). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication. Information reduces uncertainty . The uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that. The more uncertain an event, the more information is required to resolve uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information , but other units such as the nat may be used
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Information (formal Criminal Charge)
An INFORMATION is a formal criminal charge which begins a criminal proceeding in the courts. The information is one of the oldest common law pleadings (first appearing around the 13th century), and is nearly as old as the better-known indictment , with which it has always coexisted. Although the information has been abolished in England and Wales
England and Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, it is still used in Canada
Canada
, the United States
United States
(at both the federal level and in some states ) and various other common law jurisdictions. CONTENTS* 1 Canada
Canada
* 1.1 Criminal charges * 1.2 Information to obtain a search warrant * 2 United Kingdom * 2.1 England and Wales
England and Wales
* 2.2 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* 3 United States
United States
* 4 See also * 5 References CANADACRIMINAL CHARGESIn Canada, charges under the Criminal Code are either by summary process , or by indictment . Both types of charges begin with an information, except in the rare situation of a direct indictment by the Attorney General. The form of an information is prescribed by the Criminal Code. Informations are to be drafted using Form 2 for both indictable matters and summary matters. An information must be sworn by the informant, who is normally a peace officer
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Dagbladet Information
_INFORMATION_ (Danish pronunciation: ), full name: _DAGBLADET INFORMATION_ ( ), is a Danish newspaper published Monday through Saturday. CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 Circulation * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY AND PROFILE_Dagbladet Information_ was established and published by the Danish resistance movement in 1943 during World War II . The paper was edited by Børge Outze and was illegal during the war as it was not regulated by the German occupying power. Following the liberation on 5 May 1945 _Dagbladet Information_ was a reality and was officially founded in August 1945. Outze continued to work as the paper's editor in chief to his death in 1980. It has its headquarters in Copenhagen. _Dagbladet Information_ is the youngest still-surviving newspaper in Denmark and remains independent of the larger publishing houses. The paper is owned by A/S Information and is published by Aktiengesellschaft A/S Dagbladet Information from Monday to Saturday. It is based in Copenhagen . In the 1970s _Dagbladet Information_ was one of the alternative media together with _ Politisk Revy _ in Denmark and covered all dimensions of new social movements
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ (_ listen ) ASS-kee_ ), :6 abbreviated from AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE, is a character encoding standard (the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name US- ASCII
ASCII
). ASCII
ASCII
codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment , and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters. ASCII
ASCII
chart from a 1972 printer manual (b1 is the least significant bit). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Design considerations * 3.1 Bit
Bit
width * 3.2 Internal organization * 3.3 Character order * 4 Character groups * 4.1 Control characters * 4.2 Printable characters * 4.3 Character set * 5 Use * 6 Variants and derivations * 6.1 7-bit codes * 6.2 8-bit codes * 6.3 Unicode
Unicode
* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links OVERVIEW ASCII
ASCII
was developed from telegraph code
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Binary Numeral System
In mathematics and digital electronics , a BINARY NUMBER is a number expressed in the BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM or BASE-2 NUMERAL SYSTEM which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one) . The base -2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates , the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices . Each digit is referred to as a bit
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Communication
COMMUNICATION (from Latin _commūnicāre_, meaning "to share" ) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 2.1 Games * 2.2 Music * 2.2.1 Groups * 2.2.2 Albums * 2.3 Other art, entertainment, and media * 3 Places * 4 Other uses * 5 People with the surname * 6 Construction methods and structures * 7 Drainage systems * 8 See also COMPUTINGGATEWAYS TO INFORMATION * Captive portal , controlling conne
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History Of Communication
Since prehistoric times, significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication
Communication
can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with the origin of speech approximately 500,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago. The imperfection of speech, which nonetheless allowed easier dissemination of ideas and stimulated inventions , eventually resulted in the creation of new forms of communications, improving both the range at which people could communicate and the longevity of the information. All of those inventions were based on the key concept of the symbol. The oldest known symbols created for the purpose of communication were cave paintings , a form of rock art , dating to the Upper Paleolithic age. The oldest known cave painting is located within Chauvet Cave
Chauvet Cave
, dated to around 30,000 BC . These paintings contained increasing amounts of information: people may have created the first calendar as far back as 15,000 years ago
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Outline Of Communication
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to communication: COMMUNICATION – purposeful activity of exchanging information and meaning across space and time using various technical or natural means, whichever is available or preferred. Communication
Communication
requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space
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Communication Theory
COMMUNICATION THEORY is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of human communication . CONTENTS* 1 History
History
* 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Models of communication * 2 Elements of communication * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Main articles: A Mathematical Theory of Communication
A Mathematical Theory of Communication
, Jakobson\'s functions of language , Outline of communication
Outline of communication
, and Harold Innis\'s communications theories ORIGINSThe fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point." Claude Shannon (1916–2001) The origins of communication theory is linked to the development of information theory in the early 1920s. Limited information-theoretic ideas had been developed at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
, all implicitly assuming events of equal probability. Harry Nyquist 's 1924 paper, Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed, contains a theoretical section quantifying "intelligence" and the "line speed" at which it can be transmitted by a communication system
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Semiotics
SEMIOTICS (from Greek : σημειωτικός, "simiotikos") (also called SEMIOTIC STUDIES; not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called SEMIOLOGY which is a subset of semiotics) is the study of meaning-making , the study of sign processes and meaningful communication. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis ), indication, designation, likeness, analogy , allegory , metonymy , metaphor , symbolism , signification , and communication. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems . Semiotics
Semiotics
is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication. Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however. They examine areas belonging also to the life sciences —such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics (including zoosemiotics )
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Language
LANGUAGE is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication , particularly the human ability to do so, and A LANGUAGE is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics . Questions concerning the philosophy of language , such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since Gorgias and Plato in Ancient Greece . Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky . Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects . Natural languages are spoken or signed , but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in whistling , signed , or braille . This is because human language is modality -independent
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Logic
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: λογική, _logikḗ_ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" (but coming to mean "thought" or "reason"), is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments . A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, the conclusion of such an argument may be signified by words like _therefore_, _hence_, _ergo_ and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes . Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy (since ancient times) and mathematics (since the mid-1800s), and recently logic has been studied in computer science , linguistics , psychology , and other fields
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Sociology
SOCIOLOGY is a study of social beings. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order , acceptance, and change. Many sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare , while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure . The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification , social class , social mobility , religion , secularization , law , sexuality and deviance . As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency , sociology has gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such as health , medical , military and penal institutions , the Internet , education , social capital and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge . The range of social scientific methods has also expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-twentieth century led to increasingly interpretative , hermeneutic , and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society
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Discourse Analysis
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS (DA), or DISCOURSE STUDIES, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The objects of discourse analysis (discourse , writing, conversation, communicative event ) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences , propositions , speech , or turns-at-talk . Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary' but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, not invented examples. Text linguistics is a closely related field. The essential difference between discourse analysis and text linguistics is that discourse analysis aims at revealing socio-psychological characteristics of a person/persons rather than text structure. Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences , including linguistics , education, sociology , anthropology , social work , cognitive psychology , social psychology , area studies , cultural studies , international relations , human geography , communication studies , biblical studies , and translation studies , each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies
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Linguistics
LINGUISTICS is the scientific study of language , and involves an analysis of language form , language meaning , and language in context . The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini , who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his _Aṣṭādhyāyī_. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning . Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning , on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity . While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions , pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning. Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language. These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential sub-sets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences)
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