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Information
INFORMATION is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge , as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon , for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer . At its most fundamental level, information is any propagation of cause and effect within a system. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of anything.That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message
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Information (formal Criminal Charge)
An INFORMATION is a formal criminal charge which begins a criminal proceeding in the courts. The information is one of the oldest common law pleadings (first appearing around the 13th century), and is nearly as old as the better-known indictment , with which it has always coexisted. Although the information has been abolished in England and Wales
England and Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, it is still used in Canada
Canada
, the United States
United States
(at both the federal level and in some states ) and various other common law jurisdictions
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Dagbladet Information
INFORMATION (Danish pronunciation: ), full name: DAGBLADET INFORMATION ( ), is a Danish newspaper published Monday through Saturday. CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 Circulation * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY AND PROFILE Dagbladet Information was established and published by the Danish resistance movement in 1943 during World War II
World War II
. The paper was edited by Børge Outze and was illegal during the war as it was not regulated by the German occupying power. Following the liberation on 5 May 1945 Dagbladet Information was a reality and was officially founded in August 1945. Outze continued to work as the paper's editor in chief to his death in 1980. It has its headquarters in Copenhagen. Dagbladet Information is the youngest still-surviving newspaper in Denmark and remains independent of the larger publishing houses
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ (_ listen ) ASS-kee_ ), :6 abbreviated from AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE, is a character encoding standard (the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name US- ASCII
ASCII
). ASCII
ASCII
codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment , and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters. ASCII
ASCII
chart from a 1972 printer manual (b1 is the least significant bit)
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Binary Numeral System
In mathematics and digital electronics , a BINARY NUMBER is a number expressed in the BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM or BASE-2 NUMERAL SYSTEM which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one) . The base -2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates , the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices . Each digit is referred to as a bit
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Communication
COMMUNICATION (from Latin _commūnicāre_, meaning "to share" ) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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History Of Communication
Since prehistoric times, significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication
Communication
can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with the origin of speech approximately 500,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago. The imperfection of speech, which nonetheless allowed easier dissemination of ideas and stimulated inventions , eventually resulted in the creation of new forms of communications, improving both the range at which people could communicate and the longevity of the information. All of those inventions were based on the key concept of the symbol
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Outline Of Communication
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to communication: COMMUNICATION – purposeful activity of exchanging information and meaning across space and time using various technical or natural means, whichever is available or preferred. Communication
Communication
requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space
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Communication Theory
COMMUNICATION THEORY is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of human communication . CONTENTS* 1 History
History
* 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Models of communication * 2 Elements of communication * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Main articles: A Mathematical Theory of Communication
A Mathematical Theory of Communication
, Jakobson\'s functions of language , Outline of communication
Outline of communication
, and Harold Innis\'s communications theories ORIGINSThe fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point." Claude Shannon (1916–2001) The origins of communication theory is linked to the development of information theory in the early 1920s
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Semiotics
SEMIOTICS (from Greek : σημειωτικός, "simiotikos") (also called SEMIOTIC STUDIES; not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called SEMIOLOGY which is a subset of semiotics) is the study of meaning-making , the study of sign processes and meaningful communication. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis ), indication, designation, likeness, analogy , allegory , metonymy , metaphor , symbolism , signification , and communication. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems . Semiotics
Semiotics
is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication. Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however
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Language
LANGUAGE is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication , particularly the human ability to do so, and A LANGUAGE is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics . Questions concerning the philosophy of language , such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since Gorgias and Plato in Ancient Greece . Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky . Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects
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Logic
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: λογική, _logikḗ_ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" (but coming to mean "thought" or "reason"), is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments . A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, the conclusion of such an argument may be signified by words like _therefore_, _hence_, _ergo_ and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes
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Sociology
SOCIOLOGY is a study of social beings. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order , acceptance, and change. Many sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare , while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure . The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification , social class , social mobility , religion , secularization , law , sexuality and deviance
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Discourse Analysis
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS (DA), or DISCOURSE STUDIES, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The objects of discourse analysis (discourse , writing, conversation, communicative event ) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences , propositions , speech , or turns-at-talk . Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary' but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, not invented examples. Text linguistics is a closely related field. The essential difference between discourse analysis and text linguistics is that discourse analysis aims at revealing socio-psychological characteristics of a person/persons rather than text structure
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Linguistics
LINGUISTICS is the scientific study of language , and involves an analysis of language form , language meaning , and language in context . The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini , who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his _Aṣṭādhyāyī_. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning . Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning , on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity
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