HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Industrialisation
INDUSTRIALISATION or INDUSTRIALIZATION is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing . As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Social consequences * 2.1 Urbanisation * 2.1.1 Exploitation * 2.2 Changes in family structure * 3 Current situation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading BACKGROUNDThe first transformation to an industrial economy from an agricultural one, known as the Industrial Revolution , took place from the mid-18th to early 19th century in certain areas in Europe
Europe
and North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium, Germany, and France
[...More...]

"Industrialisation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Global South
The GLOBAL SOUTH is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the " Third World
Third World
" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries ," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries. The Global South is more than the extension of a "metaphor for underdeveloped countries." In general, it refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism , neo-imperialism , and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained." CONTENTS * 1 Rise of the term * 2 Debates over the term * 3 Uses of the term * 4 See also * 5 References RISE OF THE TERMThe first use of Global South in a contemporary political sense came about in 1969
[...More...]

"Global South" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Inefficiency
The term INEFFICIENCY generally refers to an absence of efficiency . It has several meanings depending on the context in which it is used: * ALLOCATIVE INEFFICIENCY - Allocative inefficiency is a situation in which the distribution of resources between alternatives does not fit with consumer taste (perceptions of costs and benefits). For example, a company may have the lowest costs in "productive" terms, but the result may be inefficient in allocative terms because the "true" or social cost exceeds the price that consumers are willing to pay for an extra unit of the product. This is true, for example, if the firm produces pollution (see also external cost ). Consumers would prefer that the firm and its competitors produce less of the product and charge a higher price, to internalize the external cost. * DISTRIBUTIVE INEFFICIENCY - refers to the inefficient distribution of income and wealth within a society
[...More...]

"Inefficiency" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Free Trade
FREE TRADE is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries. Free trade
Free trade
is exemplified by the European Economic Area and the Mercosur
Mercosur
, which have established open markets . Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) multilateral trade agreements. However, most governments still impose some protectionist policies that are intended to support local employment, such as applying tariffs to imports or subsidies to exports. Governments may also restrict free trade to limit exports of natural resources. Other barriers that may hinder trade include import quotas , taxes, and non-tariff barriers , such as regulatory legislation
[...More...]

"Free Trade" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Jobless Recovery
A JOBLESS RECOVERY or JOBLESS GROWTH is an economic phenomenon in which a macroeconomy experiences growth while maintaining or decreasing its level of employment . The term was coined by the economist Nick Perna in the early 1990s. CONTENTS* 1 Causes * 1.1 Industrial consolidation * 2 Population growth vs. employment growth * 3 See also * 4 Notes and references * 5 External links CAUSESEconomists are still divided about the causes and cures of a jobless recovery: some argue that increased productivity through automation has allowed economic growth without reducing unemployment . Other economists state that blaming automation is an example of the luddite fallacy and that jobless recoveries stem from structural changes in the labor market, leading to unemployment as workers change jobs or industries
[...More...]

"Jobless Recovery" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

South-South Cooperation
SOUTH–SOUTH COOPERATION is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries , also known as countries of the Global South . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Direction * 3 Economic alliance * 3.1 Banks to finance infrastructure projects * 3.2 Asia–Pacific Free Trade Area * 4 South-South cooperation in science * 4.1 Role of regional economic communities * 4.2 Bilateral collaboration * 4.3 Role of regional centres * 5 Security alliance * 6 Political unity * 7 Critique * 8 Sources * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORYThe formation of SSC can be traced to the Asian–African Conference that took place in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955 which is also known as the Bandung Conference. The conference has been largely regarded as a milestone for SSC cooperation
[...More...]

"South-South Cooperation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Primary Education
PRIMARY EDUCATION and ELEMENTARY EDUCATION is typically the first stage of compulsory education , coming between early childhood education and secondary education . Primary education
Primary education
usually takes place in a primary school or elementary school . In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school , an educational stage which exists in some countries, and takes place between primary school and high school
[...More...]

"Primary Education" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Talcott Parsons
TALCOTT PARSONS (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition , best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism . Parsons is considered one of the most influential figures in the development of sociology in the 20th century. After earning a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in economics, he served on the faculty at Harvard University
Harvard University
from 1927 to 1979. In 1930, he was among the first professors in its new sociology department. Based on empirical data, Parsons' social action theory was the first broad, systematic, and generalizable theory of social systems developed in the United States
United States

[...More...]

"Talcott Parsons" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Nuclear Family
A NUCLEAR FAMILY, ELEMENTARY FAMILY or CONJUGAL FAMILY is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more). It is in contrast to a single-parent family, to the larger extended family , and to a family with more than two parents. Nuclear families typically center on a married couple; the nuclear family may have any number of children. There are differences in definition among observers; some definitions allow only biological children that are full-blood siblings, but others allow for a stepparent and any mix of dependent children including stepchildren and adopted children. Family
Family
structures of a married couple and their children were present in Western Europe and New England
New England
in the 17th century, influenced by church and theocratic governments. With the emergence of proto-industrialization and early capitalism, the nuclear family became a financially viable social unit
[...More...]

"Nuclear Family" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

World Bank
The WORLD BANK is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs . It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank
World Bank
is a component of the WORLD BANK GROUP . The World Bank's stated official goal is the reduction of poverty . However, according to its Articles of Agreement, all its decisions must be guided by a commitment to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and to the facilitation of capital investment
[...More...]

"World Bank" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Organisation For Economic Co-operation And Development
The ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD; French : Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy , providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI ) and are regarded as developed countries . OECD is an official United Nations
United Nations
Observer
[...More...]

"Organisation For Economic Co-operation And Development" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Tertiary Sector
The TERTIARY SECTOR or SERVICE SECTOR is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory . The others are the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing ), and the primary sector (raw materials ). The service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products . Services (also known as "intangible goods") include attention, advice, access, experience, discussion, and affective labor . The production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector . The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers
[...More...]

"Tertiary Sector" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Working Poor
The WORKING POOR are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line . Depending on how one defines "working " and "poverty ," someone may or may not be counted as part of the working poor. While poverty is often associated with joblessness, a significant proportion of the poor are actually employed. Largely because they are earning such low wages, the working poor face numerous obstacles that make it difficult for many of them to find and keep a job, save up money, and maintain a sense of self-worth. The official working poverty rate in the US has remained somewhat static over the past four decades, but many social scientists argue that the official rate is set too low, and that the proportion of workers facing significant financial hardship has instead increased over the years. Changes in the economy, especially the shift from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy , have resulted in the polarization of the labor market
[...More...]

"Working Poor" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mechanization
MECHANIZATION or mechanisation ( British English
British English
) is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. In an early engineering text a machine is defined as follows: Every machine is constructed for the purpose of performing certain mechanical operations, each of which supposes the existence of two other things besides the machine in question, namely, a moving power, and an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the work to be done. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools. In modern usage, such as in engineering or economics, mechanization implies machinery more complex than hand tools and would not include simple devices such as an ungeared horse or donkey mill
[...More...]

"Mechanization" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Newly Industrialized Country
The category of NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists . NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country's status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Another characterization of NICs is that of countries undergoing rapid economic growth (usually export -oriented). Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of an NIC. In many NICs, social upheaval can occur as primarily rural, or agricultural, populations migrate to the cities, where the growth of manufacturing concerns and factories can draw many thousands of laborers
[...More...]

"Newly Industrialized Country" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
[...More...]

"International Standard Book Number" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo