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Industrialisation
Industrialisation
Industrialisation
or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.[2] As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth.Contents1 Background 2 Social consequences2.1 Urbanisation2.1.1 Exploitation2.2 Changes in family structure3 Current situation 4 See also 5 References 6 F
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Exploitation Of Natural Resources
The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth,[1] sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation. It started to emerge on an industrial scale in the 19th century as the extraction and processing of raw materials (such as in mining, steam power, and machinery) developed much further than it had in preindustrial eras. During the 20th century, energy consumption rapidly increased. Today, about 80% of the world’s energy consumption is sustained by the extraction of fossil fuels, which consists of oil, coal and gas.[2] Another non-renewable resource that is exploited by humans is subsoil minerals such as precious metals that are mainly used in the production of industrial commodities. Intensive agriculture is an example of a mode of production that hinders many aspects of the natural environment, for example the degradation of forests in a terrestrial ecosystem and water pollution in an aquatic ecosystem
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South-South Cooperation
South–South Cooperation is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the Global South.Contents1 History 2 Direction 3 Economic alliance3.1 Banks to finance infrastructure projects 3.2 Asia–Pacific Free Trade Area4 South-South cooperation in science4.1 Role of regional economic communities 4.2 Bilateral collaboration 4.3 Role of regional centres5 Security alliance 6 Political unity 7 Critique 8 Sources 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksHistory[edit] The formation of SSC can be traced to the Asian–African Conference that took place in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955 which is also known as the Bandung Conference. The conference has been largely regarded as a milestone for SSC cooperation
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Talcott Parsons
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism. Parsons is considered one of the most influential figures in the development of sociology in the 20th century.[1] After earning a PhD in economics, he served on the faculty at Harvard University
Harvard University
from 1927 to 1929. In 1930, he was among the first professors in its new sociology department.[2] Based on empirical data, Parsons' social action theory was the first broad, systematic, and generalizable theory of social systems developed in the United States.[3] Some of Parsons' largest contributions to sociology in the English-speaking world were his translations of Max Weber's work and his analyses of works by Weber, Émile Durkheim, and Vilfredo Pareto
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Extended Family
An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household. An example is a married couple that lives with either the husband or the wife's parents. The family changes from immediate household to extended household. In some circumstances, the extended family comes to live either with or in place of a member of the immediate family. These families include, in one household, near relatives in addition to an immediate family. An example would be an elderly parent who moves in with his or her children due to old age
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Nuclear Family
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).[1] It is in contrast to a single-parent family, to the larger extended family, and to a family with more than two parents. Nuclear families typically center on a married couple;[1] the nuclear family may have any number of children
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons
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Working Poor
The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line. This is due to a lack of work hours and/or low wages. The reason they are earning such low wages is because the working poor face numerous obstacles that make it difficult for many of them to find and keep a job. They also find it difficult to save up money, and maintain a sense of self-worth.[1] The official working poverty rate in the US has remained relatively static over the past four decades. Many social scientists argue that the official rate is set too low, and that the proportion of workers facing significant financial hardship has instead increased over the years. Changes in the economy, especially the shift from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy, have resulted in the polarization of the labor market
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World Bank
The World Bank
World Bank
(French: Banque mondiale)[2] is an international financial institution that provides loans[3] to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA)
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Organisation For Economic Co-operation And Development
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD; French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD
OECD
members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) and are regarded as developed countries
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Primary Education
. Primary education
Primary education
and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education). Primary education
Primary education
usually takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which exists in some countries, and takes place between primary school and high school college
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Exploitation Of Labour
Exploitation of labour
Exploitation of labour
is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit. It is a social relationship based on a fundamental asymmetry in a power relationship between workers and their employers.[1] When speaking about exploitation, there is a direct affiliation with consumption in social theory and traditionally this would label exploitation as unfairly taking advantage of another person because of his or her inferior position, giving the exploiter the power. Karl Marx, who is considered the most classical and influential theorist of exploitation, did not share the same traditional account of exploitation. Marx's theory explicitly rejects the moral framing characteristic of the notion of exploitation and restricts the concept to the field of labour relations
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Global South
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Third World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions."[1] It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.[2] The Global South is more than the extension of a "metaphor for underdeveloped countries."[3] In general, it refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained."[3]Contents1 Rise of the term 2 Debates over the term 3 Uses of the term 4 See also 5 ReferencesRise of the term[edit] The first use of Global South in a contemporary political sense came about in 1969
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Inefficiency
The term inefficiency generally refers to an absence of efficiency. It has several meanings depending on the context in which it is used:Allocative inefficiency - Allocative inefficiency is a situation in which the distribution of resources between alternatives does not fit with consumer taste (perceptions of costs and benefits). For example, a company may have the lowest costs in "productive" terms, but the result may be inefficient in allocative terms because the "true" or social cost exceeds the price that consumers are willing to pay for an extra unit of the product. This is true, for example, if the firm produces pollution (see also external cost). Consumers would prefer that the firm and its competitors produce less of the product and charge a higher price, to internalize the external cost. Distributive Inefficiency - refers to the inefficient distribution of income and wealth within a society
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Free Trade
Free trade
Free trade
is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries. In government, free trade is predominately advocated by political parties that hold right-wing economic positions, while economically left-wing political parties generally support protectionism.[1][2][3][4] Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) multilateral trade agreements. Free trade
Free trade
is additionally exemplified by the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
and the Mercosur, which have established open markets
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