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Industrial And Provident Society
An industrial and provident society (IPS) was a legal entity for a trading business or voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and New Zealand. The name is still used in New Zealand,[1] the Republic of Ireland[2] and within the UK in Northern Ireland.[3] Recent legal developments in Great Britain
Great Britain
include the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014, which has renamed these societies as co-operative or community benefit societies. From 1 August 2014 a new society has had to register as either a co-operative or a community benefit society rather than, as was the case previously, a society that meets either requirement
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Corporate Law
Corporate law
Corporate law
(also known as business law or enterprise law or company law) is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses. It regulates how corporations, investors, shareholders, directors, employees, creditors, and other stakeholders such as consumers, the community, and the environment interact with one another. Corporate law
Corporate law
is a part of a broader companies law (or law of business associations). It is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals with issues of both private law and public law. The most prominent kind of company, usually referred to as a "corporation", is a "juristic person", i.e
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Unlimited Company
An unlimited company or private unlimited company is a hybrid company (corporation) incorporated with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the legal liability of the members or shareholders is not limited: that is, its members or shareholders have a joint, several and non-limited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company to enable settlement of any outstanding financial liability in the event of the company's formal liquidation.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Notable unlimited company examples2.1 United Kingdom 2.2 Republic of Ireland 2.3 Other regions3 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The joint, several and non-limited liability of the members or shareholders of such unlimited company to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company (to settle its outstanding liabilities if any exist) applies only upon the formal liquidation of the company. Therefore, prior to any such formal l
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Societas Privata Europaea
A European Private Company
Company
(Latin: societas privata Europaea, SPE) is a legal form for a limited liability company that is being proposed by the European Commission
European Commission
to be introduced across the European Union. It forms a company of limited liability, similar to the English limited company, the Austrian or the German GmbH, the Dutch BV, the Belgian BVBA
BVBA
or the French SARL
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Societas Unius Personae
A societas unius personae (SUP; single-person company) is a legal form for a single-member private limited liability company proposed by the European Commission. See also[edit]European corporate lawSocietas Europaea Societas cooperativa Europaea Societas privata EuropaeaExternal links[edit]2014 Memo by the Commissionv t e European corporate forms Societas Europaea
Societas Europaea
(SE)
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European Economic Interest Grouping
A European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) is a type of legal entity of the European corporate law
European corporate law
created on 1985-07-25 under European Community (EC) Council Regulation 2137/85.[1] It is designed to make it easier for companies in different countries to do business together, or to form consortia to take part in EU programmes. Its activities must be ancillary to those of its members, and, as with a partnership, any profit or loss it makes is attributed to its members. Thus, although it is liable for VAT
VAT
and employees’ social insurance, it is not liable to corporation tax. It has unlimited liability. It was based on the pre-existing French groupement d´intérêt économique (G.i.e.). Several thousand EEIGs now exist, active in fields as varied as agricultural marketing, legal advice, research and development, osteopathy, motorcycle preservation[citation needed] and cat-breeding[citation needed]
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Charitable Incorporated Organisation
A charitable incorporated organisation (CIO) is a new form of legal entity designed for non-profit organisations in the United Kingdom. The main intended benefits of the new entity are that it has legal personality, the ability to conduct business in its own name, and limited liability so that its members and trustees will not have to contribute in the event of financial loss. These are already available to limited companies; charities can be formed as companies, but then they must be registered with both Companies House
Companies House
and the Charity Commission. In contrast, the CIO only needs to register with the Charity Commission. This is expected to reduce bureaucracy for the charity.[1] The CIO status became available to charities in England and Wales on 4 March 2013
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Community Interest Company
A community interest company (CIC) is a type of company introduced by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004, designed for social enterprises that want to use their profits and assets for the public good.[1] CICs are intended to be easy to set up, with all the flexibility and certainty of the company form, but with some special features to ensure they are working for the benefit of the community. They have proved popular and some 10,000 registered in the status's first 10 years.[2]


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Limited Company
In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company. Limited companies may be limited by shares or by guarantee. The former may be further divided in public companies and private companies. Who may become a member of a private limited company is restricted by law and by the company's rules. In contrast, anyone may buy shares in a public limited company. Limited companies can be found in most countries, although the detailed rules governing them vary widely. It is also common for a distinction to be made between the publicly tradable companies of the plc type (for example, the German Aktiengesellschaft
Aktiengesellschaft
(AG), British PLC, Czech a.s., Italian S.p.A., Hungarian Zrt. and the Spanish, French, Polish, Greek and Romanian S.A.), and the "private" types of company (such as the German GmbH, Portuguese Ltda., British Ltd., Polish sp
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Private Company Limited By Guarantee
In British and Irish company law, a company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality. A company limited by guarantee does not usually have a share capital or shareholders, but instead has members who act as guarantors. The guarantors give an undertaking to contribute a nominal amount (typically very small) in the event of the winding up of the company.[1] A company limited by guarantee can distribute its profits to its members, if allowed to by its articles of association,[2] but then it would not be eligible for charitable status. Limited companies can convert to a community interest company (CIC) which feature an asset lock which prevents the extraction of profits. Like a private company limited by shares, a company limited by guarantee must include the suffix "Limited" in its name, except in circumstances specifically excluded by law
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Private Company Limited By Shares
A private company limited by shares is a class of private limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, Scotland, certain Commonwealth countries, and the Republic of Ireland. It has shareholders with limited liability and its shares may not be offered to the general public, unlike those of a public limited company (plc). "Limited by shares" means that the liability of the shareholders to creditors of the company is limited to the capital originally invested, i.e. the nominal value of the shares and any premium paid in return for the issue of the shares by the company. A shareholder's personal assets are thus protected in the event of the company's insolvency, but any money invested in the company may be lost. A limited company may be "private" or "public". A private limited company's disclosure requirements are lighter, but its shares may not be offered to the general public and therefore cannot be traded on a public stock exchange
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Proprietary Company
A proprietary company is a form of privately held company in Australia and South Africa
South Africa
that is either limited or unlimited. However, unlike a public company there are, depending on jurisdiction, restrictions on what it can and cannot do. In Australia, a proprietary company is defined under section 45A(1) of the Corporations Act 2001
Corporations Act 2001
(Cth).[1] The Act puts certain restrictions on proprietary companies such as not permitting them to have more than 50 members (shareholders). Another important restriction relates to fundraising. A proprietary company must not engage in fundraising that would require a disclosure document such as a prospectus, an offer information statement, or a profile statement to be issued (sec.113(3)). The Act states in which circumstances a company must issue a prospectus when attempting to raise funds
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Public Limited Company
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland. It is a limited liability company whose shares may be freely sold and traded to the public (although a plc may also be privately held, often by another plc), with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and usually with the letters PLC after its name.[1] Similar companies in the United States are called publicly traded companies. Public limited companies will also have a separate legal identity. A PLC can be either an unlisted or listed company on the stock exchanges. In the United Kingdom, a public limited company usually must include the words "public limited company" or the abbreviation "PLC" or "plc" at the end and as part of the legal company name
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Benefit Corporation
In the United States, a benefit corporation is a type of for-profit corporate entity, authorized by 33 U.S. states and the District of Columbia[1] that includes positive impact on society, workers, the community and the environment in addition to profit as its legally defined goals. Benefit corporations differ from traditional C corporations in purpose, accountability, and transparency, but not in taxation. In 2015, Italy became the first country in the world to legally recognize benefit corporations across its entire territory. Australia is in the process of drafting their own similar version as of February 2016. The purpose of a benefit corporation is to create general public benefit, which is defined as a material positive impact on society and the environment, i.e. maximum positive externalities and minimum negative
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Societas Europaea
A societas Europaea (Latin pronunciation: [soˈki.e.taːs ew.roːˈpae.a] SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union
European Union
(EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.[2] Such a company may more easily transfer to or merge with companies in other member states. 2,943 registrations have been reported as of 6 February 2018, including the following nine components (18%) of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index of leading Euro Area
Euro Area
companies (excluding the SE designation): Airbus, Allianz, BASF, E.ON, Fresenius, LVMH
LVMH
Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, SAP, Schneider Electric
Schneider Electric
and Unibail-Rodamco.[3][4] National law continues to supplement the basic rules in the Regulation on formation and mergers
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C Corporation
A C corporation, under United States federal income tax law, refers to any corporation that is taxed separately from its owners. A C corporation is distinguished from an S corporation, which generally is not taxed separately. Most major companies (and many smaller companies) are treated as C corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. C corporations and S corporations both enjoy limited liability, but only C corporations are subject to corporate income taxation.[1]Contents1 C corporation
C corporation
vs. S corporation 2 Forming a corporation 3 Financial statements 4 Distributions 5 Tax
Tax
rates 6 Notes and references 7 See also C corporation
C corporation
vs
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