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Indus Valley Civilization
The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia , extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India . Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three earliest civilisations of the world and included among the civilisations of the Old World , and of the three, the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River , which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar- Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan
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Indian Subcontinent
The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT, also called the INDIAN CONTINENT, is a southern region of Asia , mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas . Geologically , the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh , Bhutan , India , Maldives , Nepal , Pakistan and Sri Lanka . Sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent
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Bronze Age
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age The BRONZE AGE is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze , proto-writing , and other early features of urban civilization . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron system , as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen , for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin , arsenic , or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilisations to gain a technological advantage
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Mohenjo-daro
MOHENJO-DARO (Sindhi : موئن جو دڙو‎, Urdu
Urdu
: موئن جو دڑو‎, IPA : , Sindhi for _Mound of the Dead Men_; English: /moʊˌhɛn.dʒoʊ ˈdɑː.roʊ/ ) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh
Sindh
, Pakistan
Pakistan
. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley civilization , and one of the world's earliest major cities , contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt
Egypt
, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, Minoan Crete , and Norte Chico . Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1980
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Sindh
SINDH /sɪnd/ (Sindhi : سنڌ‎ ; Urdu : سندھ‎) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan , in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people , it is also locally known as the MEHRAN. It was formerly known as Sind until 1956 . Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab . Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River , the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh\'s climate is noted for hot summers and mild winters
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Pakistan
Coordinates : 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان ( Urdu
Urdu
) _Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān_ _ Flag Emblem MOTTO: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm _ ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" ANTHEM: _Qaumī Tarānah _ قومی ترانہ "The National Anthem" Area controlled by Pakistan
Pakistan
shown in dark green; parts of the Kashmir
Kashmir
region (uncontrolled) shown in light green
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Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
The GREAT BATH is one of the best-known structures among the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh
Sindh
, Pakistan. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Great Bath was built in the 3rd millennium BC, soon after the raising of the "citadel" mound on which it is located. CONTENTS* 1 Features * 1.1 College of Priests * 2 Discovery * 3 Currency of Pakistan * 4 References FEATURES Another view of the Great Bath The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro is called the "earliest public water tank of the ancient world". It measures 11.88 × 7.01 metres, and has a maximum depth of 2.43 metres. Two wide staircases, one from the north and one from the south, served as the entry to the structure. A 1 metre wide and 40 centimetres high mound is present at the ends of these stairs. A hole was also found at one end of the Bath which might have been used to drain the water into it
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Indus River
The INDUS RIVER (Urdu : دریائے سندھ‎; Hindi :सिंधु; Chinese : 印度河) also called SINDHū or ABāSīN, is a major south-flowing river in South Asia . It is the namesake of the modern nation of India . The total length of the river is 3,610 km (1,988mi) which makes it one of the longest rivers in Asia . Originating in the western part of Tibet in the vicinity of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar , the river runs a course through Ladakh , Gilgit-Baltistan , and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , and then flows along the entire length of Punjab to merge into the Arabian Sea near the city of Thatta in Sindh . It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan . The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi)
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations , specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Outline Of South Asian History
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of South Asia: HISTORY OF SOUTH ASIA – SOUTH ASIA includes the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated islands, therefore, its history includes the histories of India , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Nepal , Afghanistan , Bhutan , and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives
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South Asian Stone Age
The SOUTH ASIAN STONE AGE covers the Palaeolithic , Mesolithic and Neolithic
Neolithic
periods in South Asia
South Asia
. Evidence for the most ancient anatomically modern _ Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
_ in South Asia
South Asia
has been found in the cave sites of Batadombalena and Belilena in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. In Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
, in what is today western Pakistan
Pakistan
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
began c. 7000 BCE and lasted until 3300 BCE and the first beginnings of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age

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Madrasian Culture
The MADRASIAN CULTURE is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India
India
, dated to the Lower Paleolithic , the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age
Stone Age
. It belongs to the Acheulian industry , and some scholars consider the distinction between the Madrasian and the broader, regional Acheulian tradition defunct. The culture is characterized by bifacial handaxes and cleavers , but also includes flake tools , microliths and other chopping tools. Most were made from quartzite . The Madrasian was named for its type site of Attirampakkam , near to the city of Madras (now known as Chennai
Chennai
), discovered by British archaeologist and geologist Robert Bruce Foote in 1863. The oldest tools at Attirampakkam have been dated to 1.5 million years ago using cosmic-ray exposure dating
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Riwat
Coordinates : 33°30′N 73°12′E / 33.5°N 73.2°E / 33.5; 73.2 Riwat
Riwat
GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE Pakistan
Pakistan
PERIOD Lower Paleolithic DATES 1,900,000 – 45,000 BP TYPE SITE Rawat, Murree PRECEDED BY Oldowan FOLLOWED BY Acheulean , Soanian Rawat, Murree Map of Pakistan
Pakistan
showing Rawat, Murree (clickable map). RIWAT ( Rawat, Murree ) is a Lower Paleolithic site in Punjab , northern Pakistan
Pakistan
, providing evidence of _Homo _ occupation that is the earliest outside Africa , dating back to 1.9 million years ago. The site was discovered in 1983. The artifacts consist of flakes and cores made of quartzite. Another site, called Riwat
Riwat
Site 55, shows a later occupation dated to around 45,000 years ago. REFERENCES * B
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Soanian
The SOANIAN is an archaeological industry of the Lower Paleolithic (c. 500,000 to 125,000 BP ) in Pakistan
Pakistan
. Contemporary to the Acheulean , it is named after the Soan Valley in Pakistan
Pakistan
. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day Kashmir state , northern Pakistan
Pakistan
, and Nepal
Nepal
. CONTENTS * 1 Findings * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links FINDINGS Chauntra Khasala Kalan Sivalik Hills Soan River Map of the South Asia
South Asia
showing important sites of the Soanian
Soanian
culture. The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936, but D. N. Wadia had identified the presence of these archaeological implements in 1928
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Bhirrana
BHIRRANA or BIRHANA is a small village located in Fatehabad District , in the Indian state of Haryana
Haryana
. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Excavations * 3 Dating * 4 Cultures * 5 Dancing girl graffiti * 6 Other findings * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 Further reading * 11 External links LOCATIONThe site is situated about 220 km to the northwest of New Delhi
New Delhi
on the New Delhi-Fazilka national highway and about 14 km northeast of the district headquarters on the Bhuna road in the Fatehabad district . The site is one of the many sites seen along the channels of the ancient Saraswati riverine systems, now represented by the seasonal Ghaggar River which flows in modern Haryana
Haryana
from Nahan to Sirsa. The mound measures 190 m north-south and 240 m east-west and rises to a height of 5.50 m from the surrounding area of flat alluvial sottar plain
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Mehrgarh
MEHRGARH (Balochi : _Mehrgaŕh_; Pashto : مهرګړ‎; Urdu : مہرگڑھ‎;), sometimes anglicized as MEHERGARH or MEHRGAR, is a Neolithic
Neolithic
(7000 BCE
BCE
to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan
Balochistan
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, to the west of the Indus River
Indus River
valley. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site, was a small farming village which was inhabited from circa 6500 BCE