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Indus Valley Civilization
The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC) was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia
South Asia
, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwest India
India
. Along with ancient Egypt
Egypt
and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
it was one of three earliest civilisations of the world and included among the civilisations of the Old World
Old World
, and of the three, the most widespread
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Pandu Rajar Dhibi
PANDU RAJAR DHIBI (Bengali : পাণ্ডু রাজার ঢিপি) is an archaeological site in Ausgram II block in the Sadar North subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal
West Bengal
. It was the first Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
site discovered in West Bengal. The common man believes that the main mound at Pandu Rajar Dhibi is associated with King Pandu mentioned in the epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
, hence the name came into being from the folklore . CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Excavations * 3 The People and Their Culture * 4 Significance * 5 Limitations * 6 References LOCATIONIt is located near the southern bank of Ajay River and excavations have been made near Rajpotdanga and Panduk villages. EXCAVATIONSThe site was first excavated by B.B. Lal in 1954-57
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Chera Dynasty
Maritime contacts Sangam period
Sangam period
Tamilakam
Tamilakam
Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions
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Chola Dynasty
LIST OF CHOLA KINGS AND EMPERORS EARLY CHOLAS * Ellalan * Kulakkottan * Ilamchetchenni * Karikala * Nedunkilli * Nalankilli *
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Jorwe
Near East Ghassulian
Ghassulian
culture, Naqada culture , Uruk period Europe Yamna culture
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great . Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Seleucid Empire
The SELEUCID EMPIRE (/sɪˈljuːsɪd/ ; Ancient Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid
Seleucid
dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great . Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia , Persia
Persia
, the Levant
Levant
, Mesopotamia , and what is now Kuwait , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkmenistan
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Indian Subcontinent
The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT, also called the INDIAN CONTINENT, is a southern region of Asia
Asia
, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
Himalayas
. Geologically , the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia
Asia
delineated by the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east
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Haryanka Dynasty
The HARYANKA DYNASTY was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha
Magadha
, an ancient kingdom in India
India
, which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty . The reign of this dynasty probably began in the middle of 6th century BCE. Initially, the capital was Rajagriha . Later, it was shifted to Pataliputra , near the present day Patna
Patna
in India
India
. The founder of this dynasty was either Bimbisara himself or his father Bhattiya. According to the Buddhist text, the Mahavamsa , Bimbisara was anointed king by his father at the age of fifteen. According to George Turnour and N.L. Dey, the name of the father of Bimbisara was Bhatiya or Bhattiya, but the Puranas refer him as Hemajit, Kshemajit, Kshetroja or Ksetrauja and the Tibetan texts mention him as Mahapadma. This dynasty was succeeded by the Shishunaga dynasty
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Three Crowned Kings
The THREE CROWNED RULERS, or the THREE GLORIFIED BY HEAVEN, or WORLD OF THE THREE, primarily known as Moovendhar, refers to the triumvirate of Chola
Chola
, Chera and Pandya
Pandya
who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country, Tamilakam
Tamilakam
, from their three countries or Nadu of Chola
Chola
Nadu , Pandya
Pandya
Nadu (present day Madurai
Madurai
and Tirunelveli ) and Chera Nadu (present day Kerala
Kerala
) in southern India. They signalled a time of integration and political identity for the Tamil people . They would frequently wage war against one another under a period of instability until the Imperial period of Rajaraja I who united Tamilakam
Tamilakam
under one leadership
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Pradyota Dynasty
PRADYOTA DYNASTY is an ancient Indian dynasty, which ruled over Avanti in the present-day Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state, though most of the Puranas
Puranas
(except a manuscript of the Brahmanda Purana
Brahmanda Purana
, preserved in the University of Dhaka
University of Dhaka
) say that this dynasty succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty in Magadha
Magadha
. According to the Vayu Purana, Pradyotas of Avanti annexed Magadha
Magadha
and ruled there for 138 years from 799–684 BCE. Palaka, the son of the Avanti king Pradyota, conquered Kaushambi , making the kingdom powerful. According to both Buddhist
Buddhist
texts and Jain
Jain
texts, one of the Pradyota traditions was that the king's son kill his father to become the successor. During this time, it is reported that crimes were commonplace in Magadha
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Shishunaga Dynasty
The SHISHUNAGA DYNASTY is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha
Magadha
, an empire of ancient India . According to the Puranas
Puranas
, this dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, succeeding the legendary dynasty founded by Brihadratha . Shishunaga , the founder of the dynasty, was initially an amatya or "minister" of the last Haryanka dynasty
Haryanka dynasty
ruler Nāgadāsaka and ascended to the throne after a popular rebellion in c. 413 BCE. The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajgir
Rajgir
; but later shifted to Pataliputra , near the present day Patna
Patna
, during the reign of Kakavarna. According to tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons. This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
in c. 345 BCE
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Black And Red Ware Culture
The BLACK AND RED WARE CULTURE (BRW) is a late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and early Iron Age
Iron Age
archaeological culture of the northern and central Indian subcontinent , associated with the Vedic civilization . In the Western Ganges
Ganges
plain (western Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
) it is dated to c. 1450-1200 BCE, and is succeeded by the Painted Grey Ware culture ; whereas in the Central and Eastern Ganges
Ganges
plain (eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Bihar
, and Bengal
Bengal
) and Central India ( Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
) the BRW appears during the same period but continues for longer, until c. 700-500 BCE, when it is succeeded by the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. In the Western Ganges
Ganges
plain, the BRW was preceded by the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture
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Pallava Dynasty
The PALLAVA DYNASTY was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I ( 571 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I ( 630 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami
Badami
in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and were finally defeated by the Chola kings in the 9th century CE
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Chalcolithic
Metallurgy
Metallurgy
, Wheel
Wheel
, Domestication of the horse , ↓ Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The CHALCOLITHIC (English: /ˌkælkəˈlɪθᵻk/ ; Greek : χαλκός khalkós, "copper " and λίθος líthos, "stone ") or COPPER AGE, also known as the ENEOLITHIC or AENEOLITHIC (from Latin aeneus "of copper "), was a period roughly from 3500 to 1700 BC in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze i.e. the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. The Copper
Copper
Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The archaeological site of Belovode on the Rudnik mountain in Serbia contains the world's oldest securely dated evidence of copper smelting from 5000 BCE
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Middle Kingdoms Of India
The MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire , and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
, beginning with Simuka , from 230 BCE. The "Middle" period lasted for about 1500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
, founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas
Later Cholas
( Rajendra Chola III
Rajendra Chola III
, who died in 1279 CE). This period encompasses two eras: CLASSICAL INDIA, from the Maurya Empire up until the end of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 6th century CE, and early Medieval India fro