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Indonesian Language
INDONESIAN (_bahasa Indonesia_ ) is the official language of Indonesia . It is a standardized register of Malay , an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in any of more than 700 indigenous local languages ; examples include Javanese , Sundanese and Balinese , which are commonly used at home and within the local community. However, most formal education , and nearly all national mass media , governance , administration , judiciary , and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. The Indonesian name for the language is _bahasa Indonesia_ (literally "the language of Indonesia"). This term is also occasionally found in English and other languages
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Languages Of Indonesia
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia . Most belong to the Austronesian language family , with a few Papuan languages also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as _Bahasa Indonesia_), a variant of Malay , which was used in the archipelago, borrowing heavily from local LANGUAGES OF INDONESIA such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabu . The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages , such as Javanese , as their first language. Most books printed in Indonesia are written in the Indonesian language. Since Indonesia recognises only a single official language, other languages are not recognised either at the national level or the regional level, thus making Javanese the most widely spoken language without official status , with Sundanese the second in the list (excluding Chinese dialects)
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.1750°S 106.8283°E / -6.1750; 106.8283 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Indonesian SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Indonesian * Malay * English * Dutch * Javanese * 700 others RELIGI
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition . This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption ), to a new language environment
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Austronesian Languages
The AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia , Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean , with a few members in continental Asia . Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind only the Indo-European languages , the Sino-Tibetan languages , the Niger-Congo languages , and the Afroasiatic languages . It is on par with Indo-European , Niger–Congo , and Afroasiatic as one of the best-established language families. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian ), Javanese , and Filipino (Tagalog ). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family. Otto Dempwolff was the first researcher to extensively explore Austronesian using the comparative method . Another German, Wilhelm Schmidt , coined the German word _austronesisch_ which comes from Latin _auster_ "south wind" plus Greek _nêsos_ "island". The name _Austronesian_ was formed from the same roots. The family is aptly named, as the vast majority of Austronesian languages are spoken on islands: only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages , are indigenous to mainland Asia
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Malayo-Polynesian Languages
The MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages , with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo- Polynesian languages are spoken by the Austronesian people of the island nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean , with a smaller number in continental Asia
Asia
. Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam serve as the northwest geographic outlier, going well into the Malay peninsula. On the northernmost geographical outlier does not pass beyond the north of Pattani, which is located in southern Thailand. Malagasy is spoken in the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
located off the eastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. Part of the language family shows a strong influence of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and particularly Arabic
Arabic
as the Western part of the region has been a stronghold of Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism , and, since the 10th century, Islam
Islam
. Two morphological characteristics of the Malayo-Polynesian languages are a system of affixation and the reduplication (repetition of all or part of a word, such as wiki-wiki ) to form new words. Like other Austronesian languages they have small phonemic inventories; thus a text has few but frequent sounds
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Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian Languages
The NUCLEAR MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES are a branch of the Austronesian family , proposed by Wouk and perhaps the Tamanic languages . GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS * Moken language : of the Burmese coast. * Northwest Sumatran languages : of north-central Sumatra and the Mentawai Islands . It is unclear if it includes the Enggano language . * Malayo-Sumbawan languages : of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Vietnam. Includes the Malay language , the Sundanese language
Sundanese language
, and the Balinese language . * Lampungic languages : of southeastern Sumatra. It might include the Sundanese language
Sundanese language
. * Javanese language : of central and eastern Java. WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS * Palauan language : of Palau . * Chamorro language : of the Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
, including Guam . MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, OCEANIA * Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages . * Central Malayo-Polynesian languages
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Malayo-Sumbawan Languages
The MALAYO-SUMBAWAN LANGUAGES are a group of languages identified by Adelaar (cit. Adelaar when the "low" register (commoner speech) is considered, the connections of Bali and Sasak appear to be with Madurese and Malay rather than with Javanese. Thus Balinese and Sasak are included in Malayo-Sumbawan, while Javanese is excluded. This is somewhat similar to the situation with English , where more 'refined' vocabulary suggests a connection with French , but basic language demonstrates its closer relationship to other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
such as German and Dutch . CLASSIFICATIONAccording to Adelaar (2005), the composition of the family is as follows: MALAYO-SUMBAWAN * Sundanese (1 or 2 languages of western Java
Java
; incl
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Malayic Languages
The MALAYIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Austronesian family . They include Malay , the national language of Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia; Minangkabau in central Sumatra; and Iban in northern Borneo . It is thought that the homeland of the Malayic languages
Malayic languages
is in western Borneo, where the Ibanic languages remain. The Malayan branch represents a secondary dispersal, probably from central Sumatra
Sumatra
but possibly also from Borneo. For some time there was confusion as to the placement of various languages called Dayak ; it is now apparent that some of these are Malayic and some are not. The Malayic Dayak languages include Iban; the term Ibanic sometimes applies to the whole or sometimes to a smaller group of Sea Dayak peoples, or Ibanic proper. Other Dayak languages, called Land Dayak , are found in the northwest corner of Kalimantan, between Ibanic and Malayan. CONTENTS * 1 Languages * 2 Classification * 3 Reconstruction * 3.1 Phonology * 3.2 Morphology * 4 Notes * 5 References LANGUAGES * MALAYAN LANGUAGES (Minangkabau, Malay) * IBANIC LANGUAGES , or Malayic Dayak (Iban and related tongues) * URAK LAWOI’ Several of the Ibanic languages are also sometimes placed separately in Malayic. CLASSIFICATIONAdelaar (1993) classifies the Malayic languages
Malayic languages
as follows
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Malayan Languages
The MALAY or MALAYAN LANGUAGES are a group of closely related languages spoken by Malays and related peoples across Brunei
Brunei
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Southern Thailand and the far southern parts of the Philippines
Philippines
. They have traditionally been classified as Malay, Para-Malay, and Aboriginal Malay, but this reflects geography and ethnicity rather than a proper linguistic classification. The Malayan languages are mutually unintelligible to varying extents, though the distinction between language and dialect is unclear in many cases. Para-Malay includes the Malayan languages of Sumatra
Sumatra
. They are: Minangkabau , Central Malay (Bengkulu), Pekal , Musi (Palembang), Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia), and Duano’ . Aboriginal Malay are the Malayan languages spoken by the Orang Asli ( Proto-Malay ) in Malaya . They are Jakun , Orang Kanaq , Orang Seletar , and Temuan
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Malay Language
Latin ( Malay alphabet ) Arabic script ( Jawi alphabet ) Thai alphabet (in Thailand) Malay Braille Historically Pallava alphabet , Kawi alphabet , Rencong alphabet SIGNED FORMS Manually Coded Malay Sistem Isyarat Bahasa
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population). Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western and Central European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world
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Indonesian Alphabet
The modern MALAY ALPHABET (in Brunei
Brunei
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
, Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", in Indonesia
Indonesia
, "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
without any diacritics . It is the more common of the two alphabets used today to write the Malay language , the other being Jawi (a modified Arabic script ). The Latin Malay alphabet is the official Malay script in Indonesia
Indonesia
(as Indonesian ), Malaysia (as Malaysian ) and Singapore
Singapore
, while it is co-official with Jawi in Brunei
Brunei
. Historically, various scripts such as Pallava , Kawi and Rencong were used to write Old Malay , until they were replaced by Jawi with the introduction of Islam
Islam
. The arrival of European colonial powers brought the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to the Malay Archipelago . As the Malay-speaking countries were divided between two colonial administrations (the Dutch and the British ), two major different spelling orthographies were developed in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
and British Malaya respectively, influenced by the orthographies of their respective colonial tongues
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Indonesian Braille
The goal of BRAILLE UNIFORMITY is to unify the braille alphabets of the world as much as possible, so that literacy in one braille alphabet readily transfers to another. Unification was first achieved by a convention of the International Congress on Work for the Blind in 1878, where it was decided to replace the mutually incompatible national conventions of the time with the French values of the basic Latin alphabet , both for languages which use Latin-based alphabets and, through their Latin equivalents, for languages which use other scripts. However, the unification did not address letters beyond these 26, leaving French and German Braille
Braille
partially incompatible, and as braille spread to new languages with new needs, national conventions again became disparate. A second round of unification was undertaken under the auspices of UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1951, setting the foundation for international braille usage today
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