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Indonesia Raya
"INDONESIA RAYA" has been the national anthem of Indonesia
Indonesia
since the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
on the 17 August 1945 . The song was introduced by its composer , Wage Rudolf Supratman , on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia . The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia
Indonesia
that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
, rather than split into several colonies. The first newspaper to openly publish the musical notation and lyrics of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" — an act of defiance towards the Dutch authorities — was the Chinese Indonesian weekly Sin Po
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Addie MS
ADDIE MULJADI SUMAATMADJA (born 7 October 1959), better known as ADDIE MS, is an Indonesian conductor. He currently directs the Twilite Orchestra, which he founded in 1991. Born in Jakarta to a tile factory owner, Addie became interested in music at an early age. By the age of 12 he was studying to play the piano, and during high school he became involved with several musical projects. After failing to finish his university studies, Addie focused entirely on music. His first forays were into pop music, but in 1991 he abandoned the genre for classical music by dedicating himself entirely to his new orchestra. Since then, he has continued to conduct Twilite Orchestra, although he occasionally ventures into film soundtracks and pop songs
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Sukarno
SUKARNO (Javanese : ꦯꦸꦏꦂꦤ; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia
President of Indonesia
, serving in office from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno
Sukarno
was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands . He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno
Sukarno
and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno
Sukarno
and Mohammad Hatta
Mohammad Hatta
declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno
Sukarno
was appointed as first president
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Victorian Philharmonic Orchestra
The VICTORIAN PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA is an Australian orchestra. It is affiliated with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra
Melbourne Symphony Orchestra
, and in 1999 had about 60 musicians. The orchestra has collaborated with numerous artists, including Australian alternative rock band, Jebediah and Indonesian artist Chrisye
Chrisye
. REFERENCES * ^ Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 27 February 1999. p. 54. ISSN 0006-2510 . Retrieved 1 January 2013. * ^ Endah, Alberthiene. Chrisye
Chrisye
(HC). Gramedia Pustaka Utama. p. 312. ISBN 978-979-22-2673-7 . Retrieved 1 January 2013. AUTHORITY CONTROL * MusicBrainz
MusicBrainz
: bbdc2068-045f-472e-be0b-94280d06564e This article on a classical orchestra is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This Victoria (Australia)
Victoria (Australia)
article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Soekarno
SUKARNO (Javanese : ꦯꦸꦏꦂꦤ; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia
President of Indonesia
, serving in office from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands . He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta
Mohammad Hatta
declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno was appointed as first president
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Istana Negara (Jakarta)
ISTANA NEGARA (English: or State Palace, Indonesian : Istana Negara, Dutch : Paleis te Rijswijk) is one of the 6 presidential palaces of Indonesia. It is located Veteran street Central Jakarta
Central Jakarta
, with Merdeka Palace
Palace
located south of the building
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Indonesian Rupiah
The RUPIAH (RP) is the official currency of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia
Indonesia
, the ISO 4217
ISO 4217
currency code for the Indonesian rupiah
Indonesian rupiah
is IDR. The name "rupiah" is derived from the Hindustani word rupiya (रुपीया), ultimately from Sanskrit rupya (रूप्य; wrought silver). Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ('silver' in Indonesian ) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen , although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete. The Riau islands
Riau islands
and the Indonesian half of New Guinea ( Irian Barat ) had their own variants of the rupiah in the past, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively (see Riau rupiah and West Irian rupiah )
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 )
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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg . The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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YouTube
YOUTUBE is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California . The service was created by three former PayPal employees – Chad Hurley
Chad Hurley
, Steve Chen
Steve Chen
, and Jawed Karim
Jawed Karim
– in February 2005. Google
Google
bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries . YouTube
YouTube
allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users . It uses WebM , H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
, and Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Balai Pustaka
BALAI PUSTAKA ( ; also spelled BALAI POESTAKA, both meaning "Bureau of Literature") is the state-owned publisher of Indonesia
Indonesia
and publisher of major pieces of Indonesian literature such as Salah Asuhan , Sitti Nurbaya
Sitti Nurbaya
and Layar Terkembang . Its head office is in Jakarta
Jakarta
. Founded in 1917 as the Kantoor voor de Volkslectuur, Balai Pustaka was used by the Dutch colonial government as a means to control native Indonesians ' access to information. After changing hands twice during the Indonesian war of independence , Balai Pustaka
Balai Pustaka
formally fell under the ownership of the Indonesian government. As of 2011, it is facing liquidation
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Indonesian Independence
The PROCLAMATION OF INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE (Indonesian : Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi) was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution , fighting against the forces of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and pro-Dutch civilians, until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands
Netherlands
declared that they had decided to accept de facto 17 August 1945 as Indonesia
Indonesia
's independence date. In a 2013 interview the Indonesian historian Sukotjo , amongst others, asked the Dutch government to formally acknowledge the date of independence as 17 August 1945. The United Nations, who mediated in the conflict, formally acknowledge the date of independence as 27 December 1949
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Gramophone Record
A GRAMOPHONE RECORD (PHONOGRAPH RECORD in the US), commonly known as a VINYL RECORD or simply VINYL or RECORD, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyvinyl chloride (previously shellac ) disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and replaced it by the late 1920s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed
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Stanza
In poetry , a STANZA (/ˈstænzə/ ; from Italian stanza , "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation . Stanzas can have regular rhyme and metrical schemes , though stanzas are not strictly required to have either. There are many unique forms of stanzas . Some stanzaic forms are simple, such as four-line quatrains . Other forms are more complex, such as the Spenserian stanza . Fixed verse poems , such as sestinas , can be defined by the number and form of their stanzas. The term stanza is similar to strophe , though strophe sometimes refers to irregular set of lines, as opposed to regular, rhymed stanzas. The stanza in poetry is analogous with the paragraph that is seen in prose ; related thoughts are grouped into units. In music, groups of lines are typically referred to as verses . The stanza has also been known by terms such as batch, fit, and stave
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