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Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style) was an architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states. It drew stylistic and decorative elements from native Indo-Islamic architecture, especially Mughal architecture, which the British regarded as the classic Indian style, and, less often, Hindu temple architecture
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Poured Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as calcium aluminate cements. However, asphalt concrete, which is frequently used for road surfaces, is also a type of concrete, where the cement material is bitumen, and polymer concretes are sometimes used where the cementing material is a polymer. When aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement
Portland cement
and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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British Empire
The British Empire
Empire
comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power.[1] By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time,[2] and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi),[3] 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area.[4] As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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Grand Scale
A ridable miniature railway (US: 'riding railroad' or grand scale railroad) is a ground-level, large scale model railway that hauls passengers using locomotives that are models of full-sized railway locomotives (powered by diesel or petrol engines, live steam engines or electric motors).Contents1 Overview 2 Distinction between a ridable miniature railway and a minimum-gauge railway 3 Miniature railways 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksOverview[edit] Typically miniature railways have a rail track gauge between 5 in (127 mm) and 18 in (457 mm), though both larger and smaller gauges are used. These large model railroads are most often seen in urban parks or in commercial settings, such as amusement park rides. At gauges of 5 in (127 mm) and less, the track is commonly raised above ground level. Flat cars are arranged with foot boards so that driver and passengers sit astride the track
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Exoticism
Exoticism
Exoticism
(from 'exotic') is a trend in European art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations from the late 19th-century. First stimulated by Eastern trade in the 16th and 17th centuries, interest in non-western (particularly "Oriental", i.e. Middle Eastern or Asian) art by Europeans became more and more popular following European colonialism.[1] The influences of Exoticism
Exoticism
can be seen through numerous genres of this period, notably in music, painting, and decorative art. In music, exoticism is a genre in which the rhythms, melodies, or instrumentation are designed to evoke the atmosphere of far-off lands or ancient times (e.g. Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé
Daphnis et Chloé
and Tzigane for Violin and Orchestra, Debussy's Syrinx for Flute Solo or Rimsky-Korsakov's Capriccio espagnol)
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Colonization
Colonization
Colonization
(or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. The term is derived from the Latin word colere, which means "to inhabit".[1] Also, colonization refers strictly to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts, and plantations, while colonialism to the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories". Colonization
Colonization
was linked to the spread of tens of millions from Western European states all over the world. In many settled colonies, Western European settlers formed a large majority of the population. Examples include the Americas, Australia and New Zealand. These colonies were occasionally called 'neo-Europes'
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Islamic Spain
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, a part of southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control
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Japanned
Japanning
Japanning
is a type of finish that originated as a European imitation of Asian lacquerwork. It was first used on furniture, but was later much used on small items in metal. The word originated in the 17th century. Although often referred to as lacquer, it is distinct from true East Asian lacquer, which is made by coating objects with a preparation based on the dried sap of the Toxicodendron vernicifluum
Toxicodendron vernicifluum
tree, which was not available in Europe.Contents1 Japanned 2 Development in Europe2.1 Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and Bilston3 Japanned metal 4 Applications 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksJapanned[edit] Japanning
Japanning
is most often a heavy black "lacquer", almost like enamel paint. Black is common and japanning is often assumed to be synonymous with black japanning
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Archaeological Survey Of India
The Archaeological Survey of India, is a Government of India
Government of India
(Ministry of Culture) organisation responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country. It was founded in 1861 by the British Raj. ASI (archaeology) as well as BSI (botany), FSI (forests), FiSI (fisheries), GSI (geology), IIEE (ecology), NIO (oceanography), RGCCI (Census of India), SI (cartography) and ZSI (zoology) are key national survey organisations of India.Contents1 History1.1 Formation of the ASI 1.2 1885–1901 1.3 1901–1947 1.4 1947–19562 Organisation2.1 Circles 2.2 Directors-General3 Museums 4 Library 5 Publications 6 State government archaeological departments 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] ASI was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
who also became its first Director-General
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Artisans
An artisan (from French: artisan, Italian: artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker. Artisans practice a craft and may through experience and aptitude reach the expressive levels of an artist. The adjective "artisanal" is sometimes used in describing hand-processing in what is usually viewed as an industrial process, such as in the phrase artisanal mining. Thus, "artisanal" is sometimes used in marketing and advertising as a buzz word to describe or imply some relation with the crafting of handmade food products, such as bread, beverages or cheese
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Baroque
The Baroque
Baroque
(US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style
Renaissance style
and preceded the Neoclassical style. It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant
Protestant
architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany
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Venetian Empire
The Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea
Morea
(the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete
Crete
(the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus.[1] It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e
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Gothic Architecture
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
is an architectural style that flourished in Europe
Europe
during the High and Late Middle Ages. It evolved from Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
and was succeeded by Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture. Originating in 12th century France
France
and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the later part of the Renaissance. Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault (which evolved from the joint vaulting of Romanesque architecture) and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe
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Thomas Daniell
Thomas Daniell
Thomas Daniell
RA (1749 – 19 March 1840) was an English landscape painter who also painted Orientalist themes. He spent seven years in India, accompanied by his nephew William, also an artist, and published several series of aquatints of the country.Contents1 Early life 2 India 3 Return to England 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Thomas Daniell
Thomas Daniell
was born in 1749 in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey. His father was the landlord of the Swan Inn at Chertsey
Chertsey
(where he was later succeeded by Thomas' elder brother William and his wife Sarah). Thomas began his career apprenticed to an heraldic painter and worked at Maxwell's the coach painter in Queen Street[1] before attending the Royal Academy Schools
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William Daniell
William Daniell
William Daniell
RA (1769–1837) was an English landscape and marine painter, and printmaker, notable for his work in aquatint. He travelled extensively in India in the company of his uncle Thomas Daniell, with whom he collaborated on one of the finest illustrated works of the period – Oriental Scenery. He later travelled around the coastline of Britain to paint watercolours for the equally ambitious book A Voyage Round Great Britain
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