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Indo-Gangetic Plain
The INDO-GANGETIC PLAIN, also known as the INDUS-GANGA and the NORTH INDIAN RIVER PLAIN, is a 255 million hectare (630 million acres) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India , the eastern parts of Pakistan , and virtually all of Bangladesh . The region is named after the Indus and the Ganges , and encompasses a number of large urban areas. The plain is bound on the north by the Himalayas , which feed its numerous rivers and are the source of the fertile alluvium deposited across the region by the two river systems. The southern edge of the plain is marked by the Chota Nagpur Plateau . On the west rises the Iranian Plateau
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE
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Pakistan
Coordinates : 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان ( Urdu
Urdu
) _Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān_ _ Flag Emblem MOTTO: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm _ ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" ANTHEM: _Qaumī Tarānah _ قومی ترانہ "The National Anthem" Area controlled by Pakistan
Pakistan
shown in dark green; parts of the Kashmir
Kashmir
region (uncontrolled) shown in light green
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Bangladesh
Coordinates : 23°48′N 90°18′E / 23.8°N 90.3°E / 23.8; 90.3 People's Republic of Bangladesh * গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali ) * _Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṃlādēśa_ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Amar Sonar Bangla " (Bengali ) "My Golden Bengal"------------------------- MARCH: " Notuner Gaan " "The Song of Youth" * GOVERNMENT SEAL OF BANGLADESH * Capital and largest city
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Indus
The INDUS RIVER (Urdu : دریائے سندھ‎; Hindi :सिंधु; Chinese : 印度河) also called SINDHū or ABāSīN, is a major south-flowing river in South Asia . It is the namesake of the modern nation of India . The total length of the river is 3,610 km (1,988mi) which makes it one of the longest rivers in Asia . Originating in the western part of Tibet in the vicinity of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar , the river runs a course through Ladakh , Gilgit-Baltistan , and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , and then flows along the entire length of Punjab to merge into the Arabian Sea near the city of Thatta in Sindh . It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan . The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi)
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Ganges
Coordinates : 25°18′N 83°01′E / 25.30°N 83.01°E / 25.30; 83.01 Part of a series on HINDUISM _ * Hindu
Hindu
* History Concepts GOD / HIGHEST REALITY_ * Brahman * Ishvara
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Himalayas
The HIMALAYAS, or HIMALAYA, (/ˌhɪməˈleɪ.ə/ or /hɪˈmɑːləjə/ ) form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau . The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest . The Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8000m peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia Aconcagua , in the Andes – is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall. The Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain
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Alluvium
ALLUVIUM (from the Latin _alluvius_, from _alluere_, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock ) soil or sediments , which has been eroded , reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel . When this loose alluvial material is deposited or cemented into a lithological unit, or lithified , it is called an ALLUVIAL DEPOSIT. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Age * 3 Ores * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DEFINITIONSThe term "alluvium" is not typically used in situations where the formation of the sediment can clearly be attributed to another geologic process that is well described. This includes (but is not limited to): lake sediments (lacustrine ), river sediments (fluvial ), or glacially-derived sediments (glacial till )
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Chota Nagpur Plateau
The CHOTA NAGPUR PLATEAU is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand
Jharkhand
state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha
Odisha
, West Bengal , Bihar
Bihar
and Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, and the basin of the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
River lies to the south. The total area of the Chota Plateau
Plateau
is approximately 65,000 square kilometres (25,000 sq mi)
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Iranian Plateau
The PERSIAN PLATEAU, or IRANIAN PLATEAU, is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia . It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros Mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Armenian Highlands and the Caucasus Mountains in the northwest, the Strait of Hormuz and Persian Gulf to the south and the Indus River to the east in Pakistan . As a historical region, it includes Parthia , Media , Persis , the heartlands of Iran and some of its recently lost territories . The Zagros Mountains form the plateau's western boundary, and its eastern slopes may be included in the term
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Indus Valley Civilization
The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia , extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India . Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three earliest civilisations of the world and included among the civilisations of the Old World , and of the three, the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River , which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar- Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan
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Gupta Empire
The GUPTA EMPIRE was an ancient Indian empire founded by Sri Gupta . The empire existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent . The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. This period is called the Golden Age of India
India
and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology , engineering , art , dialectic , literature , logic , mathematics , astronomy , religion , and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu
Hindu
culture . Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
, Samudragupta
Samudragupta
, and Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
were the most notable rulers of the Gupta
Gupta
dynasty
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Kanauj
KHANNAJO also spelt _Kanauj_, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . The city's name is a modern form of the classical name KANYAKUBJA (The city of the hunchbacked maidens). It was also known as MAHODAYA during the time of Mihira Bhoja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital of the Empire of Harsha under Emperor Harsha . It is said that Kanyakubja Brahmin 's of which Shandilya's (Rishi Bharadwaj was one of the disciple of Rishi Sandilya) held to have constituted one of the three prominent families of Kanyakubja Brahmins.are originally from Kannauj. Kannauj is known for the distilling of scents and is a market center for tobacco, perfume , and rose water
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Magadha
MAGADHA is a region in the Indian states of Bihar , Jharkhand , Orissa , West Bengal and the nations of Bangladesh and Nepal and formed one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas ( Sanskrit : "Great Countries") of ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges ; its first capital was Rajagriha (modern Rajgir ), then Pataliputra (modern Patna ). Rajagriha was initially known as 'Girivrijja' and later came to be known as so during the reign of Ajatashatru. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Vajji confederation and Anga , respectively, followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Odisha
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Maurya Empire
The MAURYA EMPIRE was a geographically extensive Iron Age
Iron Age
historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
which dominated ancient India between c. 322 and 187 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent , the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna
Patna
). The empire was the largest to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka
Ashoka

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Pala Empire
The PALA EMPIRE was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent , which originated in the region of Bengal . It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix of _Pala_, which meant "protector" in the ancient language of Prakrit . They were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism . The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE. The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal and Bihar , which included the major cities of Vikrampura , Pataliputra , Gauda , Monghyr , Somapura , Ramvati ( Varendra ), Tamralipta and Jaggadala . The Palas were astute diplomats and military conquerors. Their army was noted for its vast war elephant cavalry
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