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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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Multilingualism
Multilingualism
Multilingualism
is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.[1] More than half of all Europeans
Europeans
claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue;[2] nevertheless, many of these are monoscriptual. Multilingualism
Multilingualism
is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness.[3] Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming increasingly frequent, thereby promoting a need to acquire additional languages. People who speak several languages are also called polyglots.[4] Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language (L1)
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards.Contents1 Collective codes 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 3 History 4 Deficiencies 5 References 6 External linksCollective codes[edit] ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes
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Indo-European Vocabulary
The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.Contents1 Notes 2 Kinship 3 People 4 Pronouns, particles 5 Numbers 6 Body parts 7 Animals 8 Agriculture 9 Bodily functions and states 10 Mental functions and states 11 Natural features 12 Directions 13 Basic adjectives 14 Construction, fabrication 15 Self-motion, rest 16 Object motion 17 Time 18 References 19 External linksNotes[edit] The following conventions are used:Cognates are in gener
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Paeonian Language
The Paeonian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians, whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources:monapos, monaipos, the European bison tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon
Audoleon
(Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Mysian Language
The Mysian language was spoken by Mysians
Mysians
inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Proto-Indo-European Root
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes. PIE roots usually have verbal meaning like "eat" or "run". Roots never occur alone in the language
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Thraco-Illyrian
Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European. Thraco-Illyrian is also used as a term merely implying a Thracian-Illyrian interference, mixture or sprachbund, or as a shorthand way of saying that it is not determined whether a subject is to be considered as pertaining to Thracian or Illyrian
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Description 2 Reflexes 3 Unaccented words 4 Interpretation 5 Modern theories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDescription[edit] Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress: the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules. Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent. (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent", which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones, and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Indo-Hittite
In Indo-European linguistics, the term Indo-Hittite (also Indo-Anatolian) refers to Sturtevant's 1926 hypothesis that the Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
may have split off a Pre-Proto-Indo-European language considerably earlier than the separation of the remaining Indo-European languages. The term may be somewhat confusing, as the prefix Indo- does not refer to the Indo-Aryan branch in particular, but is iconic for Indo-European, and the -Hittite part refers to the Anatolian language family as a whole. Proponents of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis claim the separation may have preceded the spread of the remaining branches by several millennia, possibly as early as 7000 BC. In this context, the proto-language before the split of Anatolian would be called Proto-Indo-Hittite, and the proto-language of the remaining branches, before the next split, presumably of Tocharian, would be called Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
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Indo-European (other)
Indo-European may refer to: Indo-European languages, a major language family of Europe, the Middle East and South Asia Indo-European migrations Indo-European studies, an academic field involving linguistics, anthropology, history, archaeology Indo-European vocabulary, a table of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
words and rootsSee also[edit]Indo people, people of Dutch East Indies and European descent, also referred to as Indo-European Pre- Indo-European (other) Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(abbr
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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