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Indium
INDIUM is a chemical element with symbol IN and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium , but lower than lithium and tin . Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium , and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium
Indium
was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods . They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium
Indium
was isolated the next year. Indium
Indium
is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Zinc
ZINC is a chemical element with symbol ZN and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table . In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium : both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc
Zinc
is the 24th most abundant element in Earth\'s crust and has five stable isotopes . The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc
Zinc
is refined by froth flotation of the ore , roasting , and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning )
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Germanium
GERMANIUM is a chemical element with symbol GE and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group , chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon . Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth\'s crust . In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table , and called the element EKASILICON . Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler
Clemens Winkler
found the new element along with silver and sulfur , in a rare mineral called argyrodite
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Selenium
SELENIUM is a chemical element with symbol SE and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table , sulfur and tellurium . It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(Greek σελήνη selene meaning "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius , who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores , where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Nickel
NICKEL is a chemical element with symbol NI and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile . Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area , shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation ). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks , and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron , a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis . An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core
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Cobalt
COBALT is a chemical element with symbol CO and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron . The free element, produced by reductive smelting , is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal . Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue ) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth . Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals ; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic -containing fumes upon smelting. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold
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Titanium
TITANIUM is a chemical element with symbol TI and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium
Titanium
is resistant to corrosion in sea water , aqua regia , and chlorine . Titanium
Titanium
was discovered in Cornwall
Cornwall
, Great Britain , by William Gregor in 1791, and it is named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
for the Titans of Greek mythology
Greek mythology
. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite , which are widely distributed in the Earth\'s crust and lithosphere , and it is found in almost all living things, water bodies, rocks, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes
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Vanadium
VANADIUM is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile , and malleable transition metal . The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation ) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation . Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico
Mexico
by analyzing a new lead -bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium
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Manganese
MANGANESE is a chemical element with symbol MN and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron . Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels . Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite . By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine . Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide ) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon
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Iron
IRON is a chemical element with symbol FE (from Latin : ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series . It is by mass the most common element on Earth
Earth
, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core . It is the fourth most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium , iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states , −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water
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Krypton
KRYPTON (from Greek : κρυπτός kryptos "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol KR and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas , krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps . With rare exceptions, krypton is chemically inert . Krypton, like the other noble gases , is used in lighting and photography . Krypton
Krypton
light has many spectral lines , and krypton plasma is useful in bright, high-powered gas lasers (krypton ion and excimer lasers ), each of which resonates and amplifies a single spectral line. Krypton
Krypton
fluoride also makes a useful laser. From 1960 to 1983, the official length of a meter was defined by the 605 nm wavelength of the orange spectral line of krypton-86, because of the high power and relative ease of operation of krypton discharge tubes
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Rubidium
RUBIDIUM is a chemical element with symbol RB and atomic number 37. Rubidium
Rubidium
is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, including rapid oxidation in air . On Earth, natural rubidium comprises two isotopes : 72% is the stable isotope, 85Rb; 28% is the slightly radioactive 87Rb, with a half-life of 49 billion years—more than three times longer than the estimated age of the universe . German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed technique, flame spectroscopy . Rubidium's compounds have various chemical and electronic applications. Rubidium
Rubidium
metal is easily vaporized and has a convenient spectral absorption range, making it a frequent target for laser manipulation of atoms
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Technetium
TECHNETIUM is a chemical element with symbol TC and atomic number 43. It is the lightest element whose isotopes are all radioactive ; none are stable . Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically, and only minute amounts are found in the Earth's crust. Naturally occurring technetium is a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore or the product of neutron capture in molybdenum ores. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese . Many of technetium's properties were predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev before the element was discovered. Mendeleev noted a gap in his periodic table and gave the undiscovered element the provisional name ekamanganese (Em). In 1937, technetium (specifically the technetium-97 isotope) became the first predominantly artificial element to be produced, hence its name (from the Greek τεχνητός, meaning "artificial", + -ium)
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Ruthenium
RUTHENIUM is a chemical element with symbol RU and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table . Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 and named it after his homeland, Ruthenia
Ruthenia
. Ruthenium
Ruthenium
is usually found as a minor component of platinum ores; the annual production is about 20 tonnes . Most ruthenium produced is used in wear-resistant electrical contacts and thick-film resistors. A minor application for ruthenium is in platinum alloys and as a chemistry catalyst
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Rhodium
RHODIUM is a chemical element with symbol RH and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert transition metal . It is a member of the platinum group . It has only one naturally occurring isotope , 103Rh. Naturally occurring rhodium is usually found as the free metal, alloyed with similar metals, and rarely as a chemical compound in minerals such as bowieite and rhodplumsite . It is one of the rarest and most valuable precious metals . Rhodium
Rhodium
is a noble metal , resistant to corrosion , found in platinum or nickel ores together with the other members of the platinum group metals. It was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in one such ore, and named for the rose color of one of its chlorine compounds, produced after it reacted with the powerful acid mixture aqua regia
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