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Indicated Air Speed
Indicated airspeed (IAS) is the airspeed read directly from the airspeed indicator (ASI) on an aircraft, driven by the pitot-static system.[1] It uses the difference between total pressure and static pressure, provided by the system, to either mechanically or electronically measure dynamic pressure. The dynamic pressure includes terms for both density and airspeed. Since the airspeed indicator cannot know the density, it is by design calibrated to assume the sea level standard atmospheric density when calculating airspeed. Since the actual density will vary considerably from this assumed value as the aircraft changes altitude, IAS varies considerably from true airspeed (TAS), the relative velocity between the aircraft and the surrounding air mass. Calibrated airspeed (CAS) is the IAS corrected for instrument and position error.[1] An aircraft's indicated airspeed in knots is typically abbreviated KIAS for "Knots-Indicated Air Speed" (vs
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Airspeed
Airspeed
Airspeed
is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air. Among the common conventions for qualifying airspeed are indicated airspeed ("IAS"), calibrated airspeed ("CAS"), equivalent airspeed ("EAS"), true airspeed ("TAS"), and density airspeed. Indicated airspeed is simply what is read off of an airspeed gauge connected to a pitot static system, calibrated airspeed is indicated airspeed adjusted for pitot system position and installation error, and equivalent airspeed is calibrated airspeed adjusted for compressibility effects. True airspeed is equivalent airspeed adjusted for air density, and is also the speed of the aircraft through the air in which it is flying. [1] Calibrated airspeed is typically within a few knots of indicated airspeed, while equivalent airspeed decreases slightly from CAS as aircraft altitude increases or at high speeds. With EAS constant, true airspeed increases as aircraft altitude increases
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Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System
System
(GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS
GPS
signals. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information
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Vne
In aviation, V-speeds are standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of all aircraft.[1] These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing and verified in most countries by government flight inspectors during aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both.[2] The actual speeds represented by these designators are specific to a particular model of aircraft. They are expressed by the aircraft's indicated airspeed (and not by, for example, the ground speed), so that pilots may use them directly, without having to apply correction factors, as aircraft instruments also show indicated airspeed. In general aviation aircraft, the most commonly used and most safety-critical airspeeds are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft's airspeed indicator
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Hawker Tempest
The Hawker Tempest
Hawker Tempest
is a British fighter aircraft primarily used by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) in the Second World War. The Tempest, originally known as the Typhoon II, was an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, intended to address the Typhoon's unexpected fall-off of performance at high altitude by replacing its wing with a thinner laminar flow design. Having diverged considerably from the Typhoon, it was chosen to rename the aircraft Tempest
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Napier Sabre
The Napier Sabre
Napier Sabre
was a British H-24-cylinder, liquid-cooled, sleeve valve, piston aero engine, designed by Major Frank Halford and built by D. Napier & Son during World War II. The engine evolved to become one of the most powerful inline piston aircraft engines in the world, developing from 2,200 horsepower (1,640 kW) in its earlier versions to 3,500 hp (2,600 kW) in late-model prototypes.[1] The first operational aircraft to be powered by the Sabre were the Hawker Typhoon
Hawker Typhoon
and Hawker Tempest; the first aircraft powered by the Sabre was the Napier-Heston Racer, which was designed to capture the world speed record.[nb 1] Other aircraft using the Sabre were early prototype and production variants of the Blackburn Firebrand, the Martin-Baker MB 3
Martin-Baker MB 3
prototype and a Hawker Fury prototype
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Air Ministry
The Air Ministry
Air Ministry
was a department of the Government of the United Kingdom with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force, that existed from 1918 to 1964
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Ground Speed
Ground speed is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground. An aircraft heading vertically would have a ground speed of zero. Information displayed to passengers through the entertainment system often gives the aircraft ground speed rather than airspeed. Ground speed can be determined by the vector sum of the aircraft's true airspeed and the current wind speed and direction; a headwind subtracts from the ground speed, while a tailwind adds to it. Winds at other angles to the heading will have components of either headwind or tailwind as well as a crosswind component. An airspeed indicator indicates the aircraft's speed relative to the air mass. The air mass may be moving over the ground due to wind, and therefore some additional means to provide position over the ground is required. This might be through navigation using landmarks, radio aided position location, inertial navigation system, or GPS
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E6B
The E6B
E6B
flight computer, nicknamed the "whiz wheel" or "prayer wheel", is a form of circular slide rule used in aviation and one of the very few analog calculating devices in widespread[citation needed] use in the 21st century.The front of a metal E6B.An E6B
E6B
flight computer commonly used by student pilots.They are mostly used in flight training, because these flight computers have been replaced with electronic planning tools or software and websites that make these calculations for the pilots. These flight computers are used during flight planning (on the ground before takeoff) to aid in calculating fuel burn, wind correction, time en route, and other items. In the air, the flight computer can be used to calculate ground speed, estimated fuel burn and updated estimated time of arrival
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Wind
Wind
Wind
is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune
Neptune
and Saturn. Winds have various aspects, an important one being its velocity (wind speed); another the density of the gas involved; another its energy content or wind energy
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Pascal (unit)
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Standard units 4 Uses4.1 Hectopascal and millibar units5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer
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Doppler Radar
A Doppler radar
Doppler radar
is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect
Doppler effect
to produce velocity data about objects at a distance. It does this by bouncing a microwave signal off a desired target and analyzing how the object's motion has altered the frequency of the returned signal. This variation gives direct and highly accurate measurements of the radial component of a target's velocity relative to the radar. Doppler radars are used in aviation, sounding satellites, Major League Baseball's StatCast system, meteorology, radar guns,[1] radiology and healthcare (fall detection[2] and risk assessment, nursing or clinic purpose[3]), and bistatic radar (surface-to-air missiles). Partly because of its common use by television meteorologists in on-air weather reporting, the specific term "Doppler Radar" has erroneously become popularly synonymous with the type of radar used in meteorology
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Machmeter
A Machmeter
Machmeter
is an aircraft pitot-static system flight instrument that shows the ratio of the true airspeed to the speed of sound, a dimensionless quantity called Mach number. This is shown on a Machmeter
Machmeter
as a decimal fraction. An aircraft flying at the speed of sound is flying at a Mach number
Mach number
of one, expressed as Mach 1.Contents1 Use 2 Operation 3 Calibration 4 See also 5 ReferencesUse[edit] As an aircraft in transonic flight approaches the speed of sound, it first reaches its critical mach number, where air flowing over low-pressure areas of its surface locally reaches the speed of sound, forming shock waves. The indicated airspeed for this condition changes with ambient temperature, which in turn changes with altitude. Therefore, indicated airspeed is not entirely adequate to warn the pilot of the impending problems
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GPS
The Global Positioning System
System
(GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS
GPS
signals. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information
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Concorde
Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde
Concorde
(/ˈkɒnkɔːrd/) is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04 (1,354 mph or 2,180 km/h at cruise altitude), with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued flying for the next 27 years. It is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially; the other is the Soviet-built Tupolev Tu-144, which operated in passenger service from 1977[6] to 1978.[7] Concorde
Concorde
was jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) and the British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
(BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty. Twenty aircraft were built, including six prototypes and development aircraft
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Acronyms And Abbreviations In Avionics
This is a list of the acronyms and abbreviations used in avionics.ContentsA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit]A/A: Air to air TACAN
TACAN
function A/P: Autopilot ABAS: Aircraft-based augmentation system ACARS: Aircraft communications addressing and reporting system ACAS: Airborne collision avoidance system ACC: Area control centre ACE: Actuator control electronics ACMS: Aircraft condition monitoring system ACP: Audio control panel ACS: Audio control system ADAHRS: Air data and attitude heading reference system ADC: Air data computer ADF:
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