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Indian Independence Movement
The Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company
East India Company
rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 90 years (1857–1947). The first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took movement in the newly formed Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service (British India)
Indian Civil Service (British India)
examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai
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Native American Self-determination
Native American self-determination
Native American self-determination
refers to the social movements, legislation, and beliefs by which the tribes in the United States exercise self-governance and decision making on issues that affect their own people.Contents1 Conceptual origin1.1 Post-19602 Leaders2.1 Education2.1.1 Allan Yazzie2.2 Land reclamation and anti-termination2.2.1 Paul Bernal 2.2.2 Ada Deer 2.2.3 D'Arcy McNickle2.3 Legal activism2.3.1 John Echohawk 2.3.2 Rosalind McClanahan3 Organizations3.1 National 3.2 Regional4 Institutional capacity 5 See also 6 NotesConceptual origin[edit] Self-determination
Self-determination
is defined as the movement by which the Native Americans sought to achieve restoration of tribal community, self-government, cultural renewal, reservation development, educational control, and equal or controlling input into federal government decisions concerning policies and programs
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Tax Resistance
Tax
Tax
resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax, or to government policy, or as opposition to taxation in itself. Tax
Tax
resistance is a form of direct action and, if in violation of the tax regulations, also a form of civil disobedience. Examples of tax resistance campaigns include those advocating home rule, such as the Salt March
Salt March
led by Mahatma Gandhi, and those promoting women's suffrage, such as the Women's Tax
Tax
Resistance League.[1] War
War
tax resistance is the refusal to pay some or all taxes that pay for war, and may be practiced by conscientious objectors, pacifists, or those protesting against a particular war.[2] Tax
Tax
resisters are distinct from "tax protesters," who deny that the legal obligation to pay taxes exists or applies to them
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Coup D'état
A coup d'état (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ ( listen); French: [ku deta]), also known simply as a coup, a putsch (/pʊtʃ/), golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.[1]Contents1 Terminology1.1 Etymology 1.2 Use of the phrase 1.3 Putsch 1.4 Pronunciamiento2 History 3 Types 4 Predictors 5 Coup-proofing 6 Democratization 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups 8 International responses 9 In Popular Media 10 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d'état 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 Bibliography 15 External linksTerminology[edit] Etymology[edit] Coup is when a country or a team attempt at taking something that is not theirs. The phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state"
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Demonstration (protest)
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers. Actions such as blockades and sit-ins may also be referred to as demonstrations. Demonstrations can be nonviolent or violent (usually referred to by participants as "militant"), or can begin as nonviolent and turn violent dependent on circumstances. Sometimes riot police or other forms of law enforcement become involved. In some cases this may be in order to try to prevent the protest from taking place at all
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Guerrilla Warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.[1] Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.Contents1 Etymology 2 Strategy, tactics and methods2.1 Strategy 2.2 Tactics 2.3 Unconventional methods 2.4 Growth during the 20th century3 History 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare4.1 Scholarship4.1.1 Classic guidelines 4.1.2 Variants5 Foco
Foco
theory 6 Relationship to terrorism 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra" ("war")
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Insurgency
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.[1] An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime.[2] The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept. Not all rebellions are insurgencies. There have been many cases of non-violent rebellions, using civil resistance, as in the People Power Revolution in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 1980s that ousted President Marcos and the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[3] Where a revolt takes the form of armed rebellion, it may not be viewed as an insurgency if a state of belligerency exists between one or more sovereign states and rebel forces
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Protest
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations
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Rebellion
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.[1] It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, "I renew war" (from re- ("again") + bellō ("I wage war/I revolt"). The rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the term rebellion also refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and then manifests itself by the refusal to submit or to obey the authority responsible for this situation. Rebellion
Rebellion
can be individual or collective, peaceful (civil disobedience, civil resistance, and nonviolent resistance) or violent (terrorism, sabotage and guerrilla warfare.)[citation needed] In political terms, rebellion and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims
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Revolutionary Terror
Revolutionary terror
Revolutionary terror
(also referred to as Revolutionary terrorism, or a reign of terror)[1]) refers to the institutionalized application of force to counterrevolutionaries, particularly during the French Revolution
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Samizdat
Samizdat
Samizdat
was a form of dissident activity across the Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
in which individuals reproduced censored and underground publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader. This grassroots practice to evade official Soviet censorship was fraught with danger, as harsh punishments were meted out to people caught possessing or copying censored materials
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Strike Action
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were quickly made illegal,[citation needed] as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Occasionally, strikes destabilize the rule of a particular political party or ruler; in such cases, strikes are often part of a broader social movement taking the form of a campaign of civil resistance. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard
Gdańsk Shipyard
or 1981 Warning Strike, led by Lech Wałęsa
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Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms
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Civil War
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology,[1] is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.[2] The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.[3] Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M
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Autocracy
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).[1] Absolute monarchies (such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Brunei
Brunei
and Swaziland) and dictatorships (such as North Korea
North Korea
and Syria) are the main modern-day forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power
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Capitalism
Capitalism
Capitalism
is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.[1][2][3][4] Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets.[5][6] In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investments are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.[7][8] Economists, political economists, sociologists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free-market capitalism, welfare capitalism and state capitalism
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