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Independent Film
An INDEPENDENT FILM, INDEPENDENT MOVIE , INDIE FILM or INDIE MOVIE is a feature film that is produced outside of the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment agencies. Independent films are sometimes distinguishable by their content and style and the way in which the filmmakers' personal artistic vision is realized. Usually, but not always, independent films are made with considerably lower budgets than major studio movies. Generally, the marketing of independent films is characterized by limited release , but can also have major marketing campaigns and a wide release . Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals before distribution (theatrical or retail release). An independent film production can rival a mainstream film production if it has the necessary funding and distribution
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D.w. Griffith
DAVID WARK GRIFFITH (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American director, writer, and producer who pioneered modern filmmaking techniques . Griffith is best remembered for The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916). The Birth of a Nation made use of advanced camera and narrative techniques, and its popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film in the United States. Since its release, the film has sparked significant controversy surrounding race in the United States , focusing on its negative depiction of black people and the glorification of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
. Today, it is both noted for its radical technique and condemned for its inherently racist philosophy
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American Mutoscope And Biograph Company
Herman Casler (Inventor) Henry Marvin (Inventor) Elias Koopman
Elias Koopman
(Businessman) D.W. Griffith
D.W. Griffith
(Director) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(Actress) Blanche Sweet
Blanche Sweet
(Actress) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(Actress) Lionel Barrymore
Lionel Barrymore
(Actor) Henry B. Walthall
Henry B. Walthall
(Actor) PRODUCTS Silent films
Silent films
WEBSITE www.biographcompany.comThe BIOGRAPH COMPANY, also known as the AMERICAN MUTOSCOPE AND BIOGRAPH COMPANY, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1916. It was the first company in the United States devoted entirely to film production and exhibition, and for two decades was one of the most prolific, releasing over 3000 short films and 12 feature films
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Blanche Sweet
SARAH BLANCHE SWEET (June 18, 1896 – September 6, 1986) was an American silent film actress who began her career in the earliest days of the Hollywood motion picture film industry. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Rise to stardom * 3 Sound film and later career * 4 Death * 5 Filmography * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEBorn Sarah Blanche Sweet
Blanche Sweet
(though the first name Sarah was rarely used ) in Chicago , Illinois in 1896, daughter of Pearl, a dancer, and Gilbert Sweet, a wine merchant. Her mother died when Blanche was an infant, and she was brought up by her maternal grandmother Cora Alexander - and known as Blanche Alexander. Cora Alexander found her many parts as a young child. At age four she toured in a play called The Battle of the Strong with Marie Burroughs and Maurice Barrymore
Maurice Barrymore
. A decade later Sweet acted with Barrymore's son Lionel in a D
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Lillian Gish
LILLIAN DIANA GISH (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993) was an American actress of the screen and stage, as well as a director and writer. Her film acting career spanned 75 years, from 1912 in silent film shorts to 1987. Gish was called the FIRST LADY OF AMERICAN CINEMA, and she is credited with pioneering fundamental film performing techniques. Gish was a prominent film star of the 1910s and 1920s, particularly associated with the films of director D. W. Griffith , including her leading role in the highest-grossing film of the silent era , Griffith's seminal The Birth of a Nation (1915). At the dawn of the sound era, she returned to the stage and appeared in film infrequently, including well-known roles in the controversial western Duel in the Sun (1946) and the offbeat thriller The Night of the Hunter (1955)
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Southern California
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (colloquially known as SOCAL) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California
California
's 10 southernmost counties . The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial , Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, Orange , Riverside , San Bernardino
San Bernardino
, San Diego
San Diego
, Santa Barbara , and Ventura . The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used and is based on historical political divisions. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MEGAREGION, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States
United States

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De Facto
In law and government, DE FACTO (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/ ; Latin : de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: ), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards
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Lawsuit
A LAWSUIT (or SUIT IN LAW ) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." The term refers to any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law. Sometimes, the term "lawsuit" is in reference to a civil action brought in a court of law in which a plaintiff , a party who claims to have incurred loss as a result of a defendant 's actions, demands a legal or equitable remedy . The defendant is required to respond to the plaintiff's complaint . If the plaintiff is successful, judgment is in the plaintiff's favor, and a variety of court orders may be issued to enforce a right , award damages, or impose a temporary or permanent injunction to prevent an act or compel an act. A declaratory judgment may be issued to prevent future legal disputes
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Hollywood, California
HOLLYWOOD (/ˈhɒliwʊd/ HOL-ee-wuud ) is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, California
California
. This ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood is notable as the home of the U.S. film industry , including several of its historic studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people in it. Hollywood
Hollywood
was a small community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world
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New Jersey
NEW JERSEY is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States
United States
. It is a peninsula , bordered on the north and east by the state of New York ; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware
Delaware
. New Jersey
Jersey
is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous , with 9 million residents as of 2017, and the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states . New Jersey
Jersey
lies entirely within the combined statistical areas of New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and is the third-wealthiest state by median household income as of 2016
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Supreme Court Of The United States
------------------------- * HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES * Speaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R) * Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R) * Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D) * Congressional districts
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Mary Pickford
GLADYS LOUISE SMITH (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979), known professionally as MARY PICKFORD, was a prolific Canadian-American film actress and producer. She was a co-founder of both the Pickford-Fairbanks Studio (along with Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
) and, later, the United Artists
United Artists
film studio (with Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
and D.W. Griffith
D.W. Griffith
), and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences who present the yearly "Oscar" award ceremony
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Lionel Barrymore
LIONEL BARRYMORE (born LIONEL HERBERT BLYTHE; April 28, 1878 – November 15, 1954) was an American actor of stage, screen and radio as well as a film director. He won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in A Free Soul (1931), and remains best known to modern audiences for the role of the villainous Mr. Potter character in Frank Capra
Frank Capra
's 1946 film It\'s a Wonderful Life . He is also particularly remembered as Ebenezer Scrooge
Ebenezer Scrooge
in annual broadcasts of A Christmas Carol during his last two decades. He is also known for playing Dr. Leonard Gillespie in MGM\'s nine Dr. Kildare films, a role he reprised in a further six films focussing solely on Gillespie and in a radio series entitled The Story of Dr. Kildare. He was a member of the theatrical Barrymore family
Barrymore family

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Carl Laemmle
CARL LAEMMLE (/ˌkɑːrl.lɛm.li/ ( listen ); born KARL LäMMLE; January 17, 1867 – September 24, 1939) was a pioneer in American film making and a founder of Universal Studios
Universal Studios
. Laemmle produced or worked on over 400 films. Regarded as one of the most important of the early film pioneers, Laemmle was born in modern-day Germany
Germany
. He emigrated to the United States in 1884 and worked in Chicago
Chicago
for 20 years before he began buying nickelodeons , eventually expanding into a film distribution service, the Laemmle Film Service
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Adolph Zukor
ADOLPH ZUKOR (January 7, 1873 – June 10, 1976) was an American film mogul and founder of Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Early movie career * 3 Famous Players * 4 Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
* 5 Personal life * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY LIFEZukor was born to a Jewish family in Ricse , Hungary , which was then a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. In 1889, at the age of 16, he promised Mella Baumoel, a girl almost 4 years older, that he would send for her one day and they would be married; he emigrated to the United States. Mella arrived in the U.S. too late to wed him; they never spoke again, but she kept the ring he gave to her and passed it to her granddaughter. Like most immigrants, he began modestly. When he first landed in New York, he stayed with his family and worked in an upholstery shop
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Louis B. Mayer
LOUIS BURT MAYER (/ˈmeɪ.ər/ ; born LAZAR MEIR; July 12, 1884 – October 29, 1957; Russian : Лазарь Меир) was a Belarusian-Canadian-American film producer and co-founder of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
studios (MGM) in 1924. Mayer was skilled at developing star actors, including child actors, then placing them in consistently slick productions, such as musicals or comedies, for which MGM became famous. Under Mayer's management, MGM became the most prestigious film studio, accumulating the largest concentration of leading writers, directors and stars in Hollywood. Growing up poor in Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John, New Brunswick
, Canada and quitting school at 12 to support his family, he later moved to Boston
Boston
and purchased a small vaudeville theater in Haverhill, Massachusetts called the "Garlic Box" as it catered to poorer Italian immigrants
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