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Independent Film
An INDEPENDENT FILM, INDEPENDENT MOVIE , INDIE FILM or INDIE MOVIE is a feature film that is produced outside of the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment agencies. Independent films are sometimes distinguishable by their content and style and the way in which the filmmakers' personal artistic vision is realized. Usually, but not always, independent films are made with considerably lower budgets than major studio movies. Generally, the marketing of independent films is characterized by limited release , but can also have major marketing campaigns and a wide release . Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals before distribution (theatrical or retail release). An independent film production can rival a mainstream film production if it has the necessary funding and distribution
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication<
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Feature Film
A FEATURE FILM is a film (also called a MOVIE, MOTION PICTURE or just FILM) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The notion of how long this should be has varied according to time and place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences , the American Film
Film
Institute , and the British Film
Film
Institute , a feature film runs for 40 minutes or longer, while the Screen Actors Guild states that it is 80 minutes or longer
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Film Production
FILMMAKING is the process of making a film . Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story , idea , or commission, through screenwriting , casting , shooting, sound recording and reproduction , editing , and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic , social , and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques . Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete
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Major Film Studio
A MAJOR FILM STUDIO is a production and film distributor that releases a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of box office revenue in a given market. In the North American, Western, and global markets, the major film studios, often simply known as the MAJORS, are commonly regarded as the six diversified media conglomerates whose various film production and distribution subsidiaries collectively command approximately 80 to 85 percent of U.S. and Canadian box office revenue. The term may also be applied more specifically to the primary motion picture business subsidiary of each respective conglomerate
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Film Budget
FILM BUDGETING refers to the process by which a line producer, unit production manager, or filmmaker prepares a budget for a film production . This document, which could be over 150 pages long, is used to secure financing for and lead to pre-production and production of the film. Multiple drafts of the budget may be required to whittle down costs. A budget is typically divided into four sections: above the line (creative talent), below the line (direct production costs), post-production (editing, visual effects, etc.), and other (insurance , completion bond, etc.) The budget excludes film promotion and marketing, which is the responsibility of the film distributor . Film financing can be acquired from a private investor, sponsor , product placement , film studio , entertainment company, and/or out-of-pocket funds
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Limited Release
In the United States motion picture industry, a LIMITED RELEASE is where a new film is played in a select few theaters across the country, typically in major metropolitan markets. A limited release is often used to gauge the appeal of specialty films, like documentaries , independent films and art films . A common practice by film studios is to give highly anticipated and critically acclaimed films a limited release on or before December 31 in Los Angeles in order to qualify for an Academy Award nomination (as set by its rules). These films are almost always released to a wider audience in January or February of the following year. One notable exception is _ The Rocky Horror Picture Show _, which premiered in 1975 and is still only shown in limited fashion (it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history)
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Wide Release
In the American motion picture industry, WIDE RELEASE refers to a motion picture that is playing nationally (as opposed to a few cinemas in cities such as New York and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
). Specifically, a movie is considered to be a wide release when it is in 600 theatres or more in the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
. In the U.S., films holding an NC-17 rating have almost never received wide releases. Showgirls (1995) is the only film with an NC-17 rating to get one. SEE ALSO * Art film * Film
Film
release * Limited release REFERENCES * ^ About Movie Box Office Tracking and Terms
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Film Festivals
A FILM FESTIVAL is an organised, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases. Some festivals focus on a specific film-maker or genre (e.g., film noir ) or subject matter (e.g., horror film festivals). A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film
Film
festivals are typically annual events. Some film historians, including Jerry Beck, do not consider film festivals official releases of film
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Mainstream
MAINSTREAM is current thought that is widespread. It includes all popular culture and media culture , typically disseminated by mass media . It is to be distinguished from subcultures and countercultures , and at the opposite extreme are cult followings and fringe theories . This word is sometimes used in a pejorative sense by subcultures who view ostensibly mainstream culture as not only exclusive but artistically and aesthetically inferior
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Edison Trust
The MOTION PICTURE PATENTS COMPANY (MPPC, also known as the EDISON TRUST), founded in December 1908 and terminated 10 years later in 1918 after conflicts within the industry, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison , Biograph , Vitagraph , Essanay , Selig Polyscope , Lubin Manufacturing , Kalem Company , Star Film Paris , American Pathé ), the leading film distributor (George Kleine ) and the biggest supplier of raw film stock , Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
. The MPPC ended the domination of foreign films on American screens, standardized the manner in which films were distributed and exhibited in America, and improved the quality of American motion pictures by internal competition. But it also discouraged its members' entry into feature film production , and the use of outside financing, both to its members' eventual detriment
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Motion Picture Patents Company
The MOTION PICTURE PATENTS COMPANY (MPPC, also known as the EDISON TRUST), founded in December 1908 and terminated 10 years later in 1918 after conflicts within the industry, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison , Biograph , Vitagraph , Essanay , Selig Polyscope , Lubin Manufacturing , Kalem Company , Star Film Paris , American Pathé ), the leading film distributor (George Kleine ) and the biggest supplier of raw film stock , Eastman Kodak . The MPPC ended the domination of foreign films on American screens, standardized the manner in which films were distributed and exhibited in America, and improved the quality of American motion pictures by internal competition. But it also discouraged its members' entry into feature film production , and the use of outside financing, both to its members' eventual detriment
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Trust (19th Century)
A TRUST or CORPORATE TRUST is an American English term for a large business with significant market power . It is often used in a historical sense to refer to monopolies or near-monopolies in the United States
United States
during the Second Industrial Revolution
Second Industrial Revolution
in the 19th century and early 20th century. In the general sense, a trust is a centuries-old form of a contract whereby one party entrusts its property to a second party. These are commonly used to hold inheritances for the benefit of children, for example. In business, a trust is used to combine several large businesses in order to exert complete control over a market. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links HISTORYOriginally, the corporate trust was a legal device used to consolidate power in large American corporate enterprises. In January 1882, Samuel C. T
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Cartel
A CARTEL is a group of formally independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing , limiting supply, or other restrictive practices . Cartels typically control selling prices, but some are organized to control the prices of purchased inputs. Antitrust laws forbid cartels; however, they continue to exist nationally and internationally, openly and secretly, formally and informally. Note that a single entity that holds a monopoly by this definition cannot be a cartel, though it may be guilty of abusing said monopoly in other ways. Cartels usually occur in oligopolies , where there are a small number of sellers and usually involve homogeneous products . Bid rigging is a special type of cartel
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Edison Studios
West Orange, New Jersey
West Orange, New Jersey
(1894-1901) Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
, New York (1901-1907) Bronx
Bronx
, New York City
New York City
, New York (1907-1918) AREA SERVED United States
United States
, Europe
Europe
KEY PEOPLE William Gilmore (Vice President and General Manager) William Kennedy Dickson
William Kennedy Dickson
(Producer) William Heise
William Heise
(Producer) James H. White (Producer) William Markgraf (Producer) Alex T. Moore (Producer) Horace G. Plimpton (Producer) Edwin S. Porter (Director) John Hancock Collins (Director) J. Searle Dawley (Director) Harold M
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Biograph Studios
BIOGRAPH STUDIOS was an early film studio and laboratory complex, built in 1912 by the Biograph Company at 807 East 175th Street, in The Bronx , New York City
New York City
, New York . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early Years * 1.2 Post-Griffith Years * 1.3 Gold Medal Studios * 2 References HISTORY See also: Biograph Company EARLY YEARSThe first studio of the Biograph Company, formerly American Mutoscope and Biograph Company , was located on the roof of 841 Broadway at 13th Street in Manhattan
Manhattan
, known then as the Hackett Carhart Building and today as