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Independent Film
An INDEPENDENT FILM, INDEPENDENT MOVIE , INDIE FILM or INDIE MOVIE is a feature film that is produced outside of the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment agencies. Independent films are sometimes distinguishable by their content and style and the way in which the filmmakers' personal artistic vision is realized. Usually, but not always, independent films are made with considerably lower budgets than major studio movies. Generally, the marketing of independent films is characterized by limited release , but can also have major marketing campaigns and a wide release . Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals before distribution (theatrical or retail release). An independent film production can rival a mainstream film production if it has the necessary funding and distribution
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Feature Film
A FEATURE FILM is a film (also called a MOVIE, MOTION PICTURE or just FILM) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The notion of how long this should be has varied according to time and place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences , the American Film
Film
Institute , and the British Film
Film
Institute , a feature film runs for 40 minutes or longer, while the Screen Actors Guild states that it is 80 minutes or longer. The majority of feature films are between 70 and 210 minutes long. _ The Story of the Kelly Gang
The Story of the Kelly Gang
_ (1906, Australia) was the first dramatic feature film released (running at approximately 60 minutes). An earlier _ The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight _ (1897, U.S.) is considered by some as the first documentary feature film (running time is 100 minutes), however it is more accurately characterized as a sports program as it included the full unedited boxing match. The first (proto)-feature-length adaptation was _Les Misérables _ (1909, U.S.). Other early feature films include _The Inferno (L\'Inferno) _ (1911), _ Defence of Sevastopol _ (1911), _Quo Vadis? _ (1913), _ Oliver Twist _ (1912), _Richard III _ (1912), _ From the Manger to the Cross _ (1912), and _Cleopatra _ (1912)
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Film Production
FILMMAKING is the process of making a film . Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story , idea , or commission, through screenwriting , casting , shooting, sound recording and reproduction , editing , and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic , social , and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques . Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete. CONTENTS* 1 Stages of production * 1.1 Development * 1.2 Pre-production * 1.3 Production * 1.4 Post-production * 1.5 Distribution * 2 Independent filmmaking * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links STAGES OF PRODUCTION Film production consists of five major stages: * DEVELOPMENT: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc., and the screenplay is written
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Major Film Studio
A MAJOR FILM STUDIO is a production and film distributor that releases a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of box office revenue in a given market. In the North American, Western, and global markets, the major film studios, often simply known as the MAJORS, are commonly regarded as the six diversified media conglomerates whose various film production and distribution subsidiaries collectively command approximately 80 to 85 percent of U.S. and Canadian box office revenue. The term may also be applied more specifically to the primary motion picture business subsidiary of each respective conglomerate. The "Big Six " majors, whose operations are based in or around the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
neighborhood of Hollywood
Hollywood
, are all centered in film studios active during Hollywood\'s Golden Age of the 1930s and 1940s. In three cases— 20th Century Fox , Warner Bros. , and Paramount —the studios were one of the "Big Five" majors during that era as well. In two cases—Columbia and Universal —the studios were also considered majors, but in the next tier down, part of the "Little Three". In the sixth case, Walt Disney Studios was an independent production company during the Golden Age; it was an important Hollywood
Hollywood
entity, but not a major
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Film Budget
FILM BUDGETING refers to the process by which a line producer, unit production manager, or filmmaker prepares a budget for a film production . This document, which could be over 150 pages long, is used to secure financing for and lead to pre-production and production of the film. Multiple drafts of the budget may be required to whittle down costs. A budget is typically divided into four sections: above the line (creative talent), below the line (direct production costs), post-production (editing, visual effects, etc.), and other (insurance , completion bond, etc.) The budget excludes film promotion and marketing, which is the responsibility of the film distributor . Film financing can be acquired from a private investor, sponsor , product placement , film studio , entertainment company, and/or out-of-pocket funds. When it comes to reporting the budget of a film, the amount of the budget represents the gross budget, which is the grand total of actual spending to produce the project and not to be confused with net budget, which represents the final out of pocket for the producer after government incentives or rebates ("If you pay $50 for something but have a mail-in coupon for a $10 rebate, your gross spending still amounts to $50.") One of the consequences of the Sony hack was the release of budget information of many films or TV shows, including the 2015 Adam Sandler film Pixels
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Limited Release
In the United States motion picture industry, a LIMITED RELEASE is where a new film is played in a select few theaters across the country, typically in major metropolitan markets. A limited release is often used to gauge the appeal of specialty films, like documentaries , independent films and art films . A common practice by film studios is to give highly anticipated and critically acclaimed films a limited release on or before December 31 in Los Angeles in order to qualify for an Academy Award nomination (as set by its rules). These films are almost always released to a wider audience in January or February of the following year. One notable exception is _ The Rocky Horror Picture Show _, which premiered in 1975 and is still only shown in limited fashion (it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history). CONTENTS * 1 Platform release * 2 See also * 3 References PLATFORM RELEASEA PLATFORM RELEASE is a type of limited release strategy, whereby a film opens in fewer theaters (typically 599 or fewer) than a wide release . If the film receives positive word of mouth, then it is gradually expanded to more theaters as the marketing campaign gains momentum. A successful film released in this manner even has the possibility of expanding into a wide release
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Wide Release
In the American motion picture industry, WIDE RELEASE refers to a motion picture that is playing nationally (as opposed to a few cinemas in cities such as New York and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
). Specifically, a movie is considered to be a wide release when it is in 600 theatres or more in the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
. In the U.S., films holding an NC-17 rating have almost never received wide releases. Showgirls (1995) is the only film with an NC-17 rating to get one. SEE ALSO * Art film * Film
Film
release * Limited release REFERENCES * ^ About Movie Box Office Tracking and Terms. Box Office Mojo . Retrieved 2010-08-28. * ^ First Major Film
Film
With an NC-17 Rating Is Embraced by the StudioFURTHER READING * Dade Hayes and Jonathan Bing, Open Wide: How Hollywood Box Office Became a National Obsession, Miramax Books, 2004
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Film Festivals
A FILM FESTIVAL is an organised, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases. Some festivals focus on a specific film-maker or genre (e.g., film noir ) or subject matter (e.g., horror film festivals). A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are typically annual events. Some film historians, including Jerry Beck, do not consider film festivals official releases of film. The best-known film festivals are the Cannes Film Festival , the Venice Film Festival , the Berlin International Film Festival and the Toronto International Film Festival , Sundance Film Festival , the latter being the largest film festival worldwide, based on attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest major festival. The Melbourne International Film Festival is the largest film festival in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the oldest in the world. The San Sebastián International Film Festival is one of the most important and oldest film festivals in Europe, having been host to the world premiere of North by Northwest as well as the first screening of Star Wars in Europe
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Mainstream
MAINSTREAM is current thought that is widespread. It includes all popular culture and media culture , typically disseminated by mass media . It is to be distinguished from subcultures and countercultures , and at the opposite extreme are cult followings and fringe theories . This word is sometimes used in a pejorative sense by subcultures who view ostensibly mainstream culture as not only exclusive but artistically and aesthetically inferior. In the United States , mainline churches are sometimes referred to synonymously as "mainstream." CONTENTS * 1 In the media * 2 In science * 3 In sociology * 4 In religion * 5 Education * 6 Etymology * 7 See also * 8 References IN THE MEDIA Main articles: Mainstream media and Mass media The labels " Mainstream media", or "mass media", are generally applied to print publications, such as newspapers and magazines that contain the highest readership among the public, and to radio formats and television stations that contain the highest viewing and listener audience, respectively. This is in contrast to various independent media , such as alternative media newspapers, specialized magazines in various organizations and corporations, and various electronic sources such as podcasts and blogs (Though certain blogs are more mainstream than others given their association with a mainstream source
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Edison Trust
The MOTION PICTURE PATENTS COMPANY (MPPC, also known as the EDISON TRUST), founded in December 1908 and terminated 10 years later in 1918 after conflicts within the industry, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison , Biograph , Vitagraph , Essanay , Selig Polyscope , Lubin Manufacturing , Kalem Company
Kalem Company
, Star Film Paris , American Pathé ), the leading film distributor (George Kleine ) and the biggest supplier of raw film stock , Eastman Kodak . The MPPC ended the domination of foreign films on American screens, standardized the manner in which films were distributed and exhibited in America, and improved the quality of American motion pictures by internal competition. But it also discouraged its members' entry into feature film production , and the use of outside financing, both to its members' eventual detriment. CONTENTS* 1 Creation * 1.1 The addition of Biograph * 2 Policies * 2.1 Content * 3 Backlash and decline * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CREATIONThe MPPC was preceded by the Edison licensing system, in effect in 1907–1908, on which the MPPC was modeled. During the 1890s, Thomas Edison owned most of the major American patents relating to motion picture cameras
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Motion Picture Patents Company
The MOTION PICTURE PATENTS COMPANY (MPPC, also known as the EDISON TRUST), founded in December 1908 and terminated 10 years later in 1918 after conflicts within the industry, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison , Biograph , Vitagraph , Essanay , Selig Polyscope , Lubin Manufacturing , Kalem Company , Star Film Paris , American Pathé ), the leading film distributor (George Kleine ) and the biggest supplier of raw film stock , Eastman Kodak . The MPPC ended the domination of foreign films on American screens, standardized the manner in which films were distributed and exhibited in America, and improved the quality of American motion pictures by internal competition. But it also discouraged its members' entry into feature film production , and the use of outside financing, both to its members' eventual detriment. CONTENTS* 1 Creation * 1.1 The addition of Biograph * 2 Policies * 2.1 Content * 3 Backlash and decline * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CREATIONThe MPPC was preceded by the Edison licensing system, in effect in 1907–1908, on which the MPPC was modeled. During the 1890s, Thomas Edison owned most of the major American patents relating to motion picture cameras
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Trust (19th Century)
A TRUST or CORPORATE TRUST is an American English term for a large business with significant market power . It is often used in a historical sense to refer to monopolies or near-monopolies in the United States
United States
during the Second Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and early 20th century. In the general sense, a trust is a centuries-old form of a contract whereby one party entrusts its property to a second party. These are commonly used to hold inheritances for the benefit of children, for example. In business, a trust is used to combine several large businesses in order to exert complete control over a market. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links HISTORYOriginally, the corporate trust was a legal device used to consolidate power in large American corporate enterprises. In January 1882, Samuel C. T. Dodd , Standard Oil’s General Solicitor, conceived of the corporate trust to help John D. Rockefeller consolidate his control over the many acquisitions of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
, which was already the largest corporation in the world. The Standard Oil Trust was formed pursuant to a "trust agreement" in which the individual shareholders of many separate corporations agreed to convey their shares to the trust; it ended up entirely owning 14 corporations and also exercised majority control over 26 others
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Cartel
A CARTEL is a group of formally independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing , limiting supply, or other restrictive practices . Cartels typically control selling prices, but some are organized to control the prices of purchased inputs. Antitrust laws forbid cartels; however, they continue to exist nationally and internationally, openly and secretly, formally and informally. Note that a single entity that holds a monopoly by this definition cannot be a cartel, though it may be guilty of abusing said monopoly in other ways. Cartels usually occur in oligopolies , where there are a small number of sellers and usually involve homogeneous products . Bid rigging is a special type of cartel. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links OVERVIEW _People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices._ _ Adam Smith , The Wealth of Nations _, 1776 A survey of hundreds of published economic studies and legal decisions of antitrust authorities found that the median price increase achieved by cartels in the last 200 years is 25%. Private international cartels (those with participants from two or more nations) had an average price increase of 28%, whereas domestic cartels averaged 18%
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Edison Studios
West Orange, New Jersey (1894-1901) Manhattan , New York City , New York (1901-1907) Bronx , New York City , New York (1907-1918) AREA SERVED United States , Europe KEY PEOPLE William Gilmore (Vice President and General Manager) William Kennedy Dickson (Producer) William Heise (Producer) James H. White (Producer) William Markgraf (Producer) Alex T. Moore (Producer) Horace G. Plimpton (Producer) Edwin S. Porter (Director) John Hancock Collins (Director) J. Searle Dawley (Director) Harold M. Shaw (Director) PRODUCTS Silent films PARENT Edison Manufacturing Company (1894-1911) Thomas A. Edison, Inc. (1911-1918) EDISON STUDIOS was an American film production organization , owned by companies controlled by inventor and entrepreneur, Thomas Edison . The studio made close to 1,200 films, as part of the Edison Manufacturing Company (1894–1911) and then the Thomas A. Edison, Inc. (1911–1918), until the studio's closing in 1918. Of that number, 54 were feature length , and the remainder were shorts
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Biograph Studios
BIOGRAPH STUDIOS was an early film studio and laboratory complex, built in 1912 by the Biograph Company
Biograph Company
at 807 East 175th Street, in The Bronx , New York City
New York City
, New York . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early Years * 1.2 Post-Griffith Years * 1.3 Gold Medal Studios * 2 References HISTORY See also: Biograph Company
Biograph Company
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