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Inca
The Inca Empire
Empire
(Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[2]), also known as the Incan Empire
Empire
and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[3] and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.[4] Its political and administrative structure "was the most sophisticated found among native peoples" in the Americas.[5] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization
Inca civilization
arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Quechuan And Aymaran Spelling Shift
In recent years, Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
have revised the official spelling for place-names originating from Aymara and the Quechuan languages. A standardized alphabet for Quechua was adopted by the Peruvian government in 1975; a revision in 1985 moved to a three-vowel orthography.[1] The major changes are to replace the digraph hu with the single letter w, and to replace the consonants c/q[u] with either k or q, as appropriate in the word in question. K and q represent different sounds in most Andean languages: k is a velar stop, as in Spanish and English; q is a uvular stop [q]
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Jaqi
Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan. Hardman (1978) proposed the name Jaqi for the family of languages (1978), Alfredo Torero Aru 'to speak', and Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino Aymaran, with two branches, Southern (or Altiplano) Aymaran and Central Aymaran ( Jaqaru
Jaqaru
and Kawki). Quechuan languages, especially those of the south, share a large amount of vocabu
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Muchik
Mochica (also Yunga, Yunca, Chimú, Muchic, Mochika, Muchik, Chimu) is a Chimuan language formerly spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in an inland village. First documented in 1607, the language was widely spoken in the area during the 17th and early 18th century. By the end of the 19th century the language was dying out and spoken only by a few people in the village of Etén in Chiclayo. It died out as a spoken language around 1920, but certain words and phrases continued to be used until the 1960s.[2] It is a best known as the supposed language of the Moche culture, as well as the Chimú culture/Chimor.Contents1 Linguistic category 2 Phonology2.1 Vowels3 Surviving records 4 Learning program 5 References 6 External linksLinguistic category[edit] Mochica is typologically different from the other main languages on the west coast of South America, namely the Quechuan languages, Aymara, and the Mapuche language
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Solar Deity
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms. The Sun
Sun
is sometimes referred to by its Latin
Latin
name Sol or by its Greek name Helios
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Aymara Language
Aymara /aɪməˈrɑː/ (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people
Aymara people
of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers.[3][4] Aymara, along with Spanish, is one of the official languages of Bolivia
Bolivia
and parts of Peru. It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language. Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely spoken neighbor, Quechua. That claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage. Aymara is an agglutinating and, to a certain extent, a polysynthetic language
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Puquina Language
Puquina (or Pukina) is an extinct language once spoken by a native ethnic group in the region surrounding Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
( Peru
Peru
and Bolivia) and in the north of Chile. It is often associated with the culture that built Tiwanaku. Remnants of Puquina can be found in the Quechuan and Spanish languages spoken in the south of Peru, mainly in Arequipa, Moquegua
Moquegua
and Tacna, as well as in Bolivia. There also seem to be remnants in the Kallawaya language, which may be a mixed language formed from Quechuan languages and Puquina
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Imperial Cult
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities. "Cult" here is used to mean "worship", not in the modern pejorative sense. The cult may be one of personality in the case of a newly arisen Euhemerus figure, or one of national identity (e.g., Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
or Empire of Japan) or supranational identity in the case of a multi-ethnic state (e.g., Imperial Era China, Roman Empire). A divine king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects, and serves as both head of state and a deity or head religious figure
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Absolute Monarchy
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy,[1][2] is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.[3] These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies
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Argentina
Coordinates: 34°S 64°W / 34°S 64°W / -34; -64Argentine Republic[A] República Argentina  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "En unión y libertad" ("In Unity and Freedom")Anthem: Himno Nacional Argentino ("Argentine National Anthem")Sol de Mayo[2] (Sun of May)Location of  Argentina  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Buenos Aires 34°36′S 58°23′W / 34.600°S 58.383°W / -34.600; -58.383Official languages NoneNational language Spanish[a]Regional languagesGuarani in Corrientes;[3] Qom, Mocoví and Wichí in Chaco[4]Religion77.1% Roman Catholicism 10.8% Protestant 10.1% Non-religious 2.6% Other[5]DemonymArgentine Argentinian Argentinean (uncommon)Government Federal presidential constitutional republic• PresidentMauricio Macri•
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Governorate Of New Castile
The Governorate of New Castile
Governorate of New Castile
(Gobernación de Nueva Castilla) was the gubernatorial region administered to Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
in 1528 by King Charles I of Spain, of which he was appointed governor. The region roughly consisted of modern Peru and was after the foundation of Lima
Lima
in 1535 divided
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Huaca
In the Quechuan languages
Quechuan languages
of South America, a huaca or wak'a is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. The term huaca can refer to natural locations, such as immense rocks. Some huacas have been associated with veneration and ritual. The Quechua people
Quechua people
traditionally believed every object has a physical presence and two camaquen (spirits), one to create it and another to animate it. They would invoke its spirits for the object to function.Contents1 Huacas in Peru 2 Huacas along ceremonial routes 3 External links 4 ReferencesHuacas in Peru[edit] Huacas are commonly located in nearly all regions of Peru outside the deepest parts of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
in correlation with the regions populated by the pre-Inca and Inca early civilizations
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Governorate Of New Toledo
The Governorate of New Toledo
Governorate of New Toledo
was formed from the previous southern half of the Inca empire, stretching south into present day central Chile, and east into present day central Brazil. Established by King Charles I of Spain
Charles I of Spain
in 1528
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