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Inbreeding Depression
Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population
Population
biological fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic
Hermaphroditic
species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations
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Delphinium Nelsonii
Delphinium
Delphinium
nuttallianum is a species of larkspur known by the common names twolobe larkspur and Nuttall's larkspur. It is widely distributed across western North America from California
California
to Alberta. This wildflower has a white to pink erect stem usually not exceeding half a meter in height which may branch several times. Deeply lobed leaves are located mostly about the base of the plant. The inflorescence occupying the top end of the stem has few widely spaced flowers on long pedicels. The sepals are long and curl backwards or fold upon themselves. They may be dark purple to light blue or rarely white. The lower petals are the same color, while the upper are often white
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Literacy
Literacy
Literacy
is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write .[1] The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.[2] The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD
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Natural Selection
Natural selection
Natural selection
is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
popularised the term "natural selection", contrasting it with artificial selection, which is intentional, whereas natural selection is not. Variation exists within all populations of organisms. This occurs partly because random mutations arise in the genome of an individual organism, and offspring can inherit such mutations. Throughout the lives of the individuals, their genomes interact with their environments to cause variations in traits
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Phenotype
A phenotype (from Greek phainein, meaning 'to show', and typos, meaning 'type') is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype, as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic
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Kin Recognition
Kin recognition, also called kin detection, is an organism's ability to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin. In evolutionary biology and psychology, such an ability is presumed to have evolved for inbreeding avoidance. An additional adaptive function sometimes posited for kin recognition is a role in kin selection. There is debate over this, since in strict theoretical terms kin recognition is not necessary for kin selection or the cooperation associated with it. Rather, social behaviour can emerge by kin selection in the demographic conditions of 'viscous populations' with organisms interacting in their natal context, without active kin discrimination, since social participants by default typically share recent common origin
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Zygosity
Zygosity
Zygosity
is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid
Diploid
organisms have the same loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a chromosomal sex-determination system. If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous, and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous. The DNA sequence of a gene often varies from one individual to another. Those variations are called alleles
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Locus (genetics)
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).[1] Each chromosome carries many genes; human's estimated 'haploid' protein coding genes are 19,000-20,000,[2] on the 23 different chromosomes. A variant of the similar DNA sequence located at a given locus is called an allele. The ordered list of loci known for a particular genome is called a gene map
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Adaptation
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their evolutionary fitness. Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Thirdly, it is a phenotypic or adaptive trait, with a functional role in each individual organism, that is maintained and has been evolved by natural selection. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow, and show adaptive plasticity as traits develop in response to the imposed conditions
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Subspecies
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.[2][3] A subspecies cannot be recognized independently. A species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. The term is abbreviated "subsp." or "ssp."; plural: "subspecies". In zoology, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology, under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, other infraspecific ranks, such as variety, may be named
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Marriage
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).[1] The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but also throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but typically it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal
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Contraceptive
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.[1] Birth control
Birth control
has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century.[2] Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning.[3][4] Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.[2] The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females
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Overdominance
Overdominance is a condition in genetics where the phenotype of the heterozygote lies outside the phenotypical range of both homozygous parents. Overdominance can also be described as heterozygote advantage, wherein heterozygous individuals have a higher fitness than homozygous individuals. An example in humans is sickle cell anemia. This condition is determined by a single polymorphism. Possessors of the deleterious allele have lower life expectancy, with homozygotes rarely reaching 50 years of age. However, this allele also yields some resistance to malaria. Thus in regions where malaria exerts or has exerted a strong selective pressure, sickle cell anemia has been selected for its conferred partial resistance to the disease
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Reproductive Compensation
Reproductive compensation was originally a theory to explain why recessive genetic disorders may persist in a population. It was proposed in 1967 as an explanation for the maintenance of Rh negative blood groups.[1] Reproductive compensation refers to the tendency of parents, seeking a given family size, to replace offspring that are lost to genetic disorders. It may also refer to the effects of increased maternal or parental investment in caring for disadvantaged offspring, seeking to compensate for genetic disadvantage. It is a theory that suggests that behavioral as well as physiological factors may play a role in the level of recessive genetic disorders in a population.[2] According to Andrew Overall of the University of Edinburgh, “Reproductive compensation may be particularly significant where economic or social factors mean that families are small compared to the maximum reproductive rate. Within small families, diseased infants may be more likely to be replaced
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Charles Darwin
Tertiary education: University of Edinburgh Medical School
University of Edinburgh Medical School
(medicine, no degree) Christ's College, Cambridge
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Emma Darwin
Emma Darwin
Emma Darwin
(née Wedgwood; 2 May 1808 – 2 October 1896) was an English woman who was the wife and first cousin of Charles Darwin. They were married on 29 January 1839 and were the parents of ten children, three of whom died at early ages.Contents1 Early life 2 Marriage 3 Religious views 4 Role in editing and publishing work of Charles Darwin 5 Later life 6 Children 7 In popular culture 8 St. Mary the Virgin, Downe 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksEarly life[edit] Emma Wedgewood was born at the family estate of Maer Hall
Maer Hall
in Maer, Staffordshire, the youngest of seven[1] children of Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
II and his wife Elizabeth "Bessie" (née Allen). Her grandfather Josiah Wedgwood had made his fortune in pottery, and like many others who were not part of the aristocracy, they were nonconformist, belonging to the Unitarian church
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