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Impotence
Erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction
(ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity. Erectile dysfunction can have psychological consequences as it can be tied to relationship difficulties and self-image. The most important organic causes of impotence are cardiovascular disease and diabetes, neurological problems (for example, trauma from prostatectomy surgery), hormonal insufficiencies (hypogonadism) and drug side effects. Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility; this is somewhat less frequent but can often be helped
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Nitric Oxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide Dinitrogen trioxide Nitrogen
Nitrogen
dioxide Nitrous oxide Nitroxyl
Nitroxyl
(reduced form) Hydroxylamine
Hydroxylamine
(hydrogenated form)Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
(nitrogen oxide[3] or nitrogen monoxide), a chemical compound, is a colorless gas under standard conditions, and is one of several oxides of nitrogen. Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
is a free radical, i.e., its bonding structure includes an unpaired electron,[4] denoted by a dot in its chemical formula, ·NO
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Aging
Ageing
Ageing
or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal. In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or to the population of a species (population ageing). In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time,[1] encompassing physical, psychological, and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand
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Kidney Failure
Kidney
Kidney
failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.[1] It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term).[5] Symptoms may include leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion.[1] Complications of acute disease may include uremia, high blood potassium, or volume overload.[2] Complications of chronic disease may include heart disease, high blood pressure, or anemia.[3][4] Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure, blockage of the urinary tract, certain medica
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Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
(MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[1] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[5][8][9] Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination.[1] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolate
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Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.[7] Initially, there are generally no symptoms.[1] When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems depending on the arteries affected.[1] Symptoms, if they occur, generally do not begin until middle age.[3] The exact cause is not known.[1] Risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and an unhealthy diet.[3] Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other
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Prostate
The prostate (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian"[1]) is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.[2][3] It differs considerably among species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically. The function of the prostate is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that in humans usually constitutes roughly 30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid.[4] Semen
Semen
is made alkaline overall with the secretions from the other contributing glands, including, at least, the seminal vesicle fluid.[5] The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm. The prostatic fluid is expelled in the first ejaculate fractions, together with most of the spermatozoa
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External Beam Radiation
External beam radiotherapy
External beam radiotherapy
(EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy). The patient sits or lies on a couch and an external source of ionizing radiation is pointed at a particular part of the body. In contrast to brachytherapy (sealed source radiotherapy) and unsealed source radiotherapy, in which the radiation source is inside the body, external beam radiotherapy directs the radiation at the tumour from outside the body. Orthovoltage
Orthovoltage
("superficial") X-rays
X-rays
are used for treating skin cancer and superficial structures. Megavoltage
Megavoltage
("deep") X-rays
X-rays
are used to treat deep-seated tumours (e.g. bladder, bowel, prostate, lung, or brain). X-rays
X-rays
and electron beams are by far the most widely used sources for external beam radiotherapy
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Limbic System
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.[1] It has also been referred to as the paleomammalian cortex
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Human Brain
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs, and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body. The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head. The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is an outer layer of grey matter, covering the core of white matter. The cortex is split into the neocortex and the much smaller allocortex. The neocortex is made up of six neuronal layers, while the allocortex has three or four. Each hemisphere is conventionally divided into four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes
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Nervous System
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events.[1] Nervous tissue
Nervous tissue
first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent
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Corpus Cavernosum Penis
A corpus cavernosum penis (singular) (cavernous body of the penis) is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, the corpora cavernosa (plural) (cavernous bodies), which contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection.[1][2][3] Such a corpus is homologous to the corpus cavernosum clitoridis in the female; the body of the clitoris contains erectile tissue in a pair of corpora cavernosa (literally "cave-like bodies") with a recognisably similar structure.Contents1 Anatomy 2 Physiology 3 Additional images 4 References 5 External linksAnatomy[edit] The two corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum (also known as the corpus cavernosum urethrae in older texts and in the adjacent diagram) are three expandable erectile tissues along the length of the penis, which fill with blood during penile erection. The two corpora cavernosa lie along the penis shaft, from the pubic bones to the head of the penis, where they join
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Urology
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis). The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other
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Testes
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans. It is homologous to the female ovary. The functions of the testes are to produce both sperm and androgens, primarily testosterone
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Pituitary Gland
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).[2] The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone
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