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Imperial Cult
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities. "Cult" here is used to mean "worship", not in the modern pejorative sense. The cult may be one of personality in the case of a newly arisen Euhemerus figure, or one of national identity (e.g., Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
or Empire of Japan) or supranational identity in the case of a multi-ethnic state (e.g., Imperial Era China, Roman Empire). A divine king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects, and serves as both head of state and a deity or head religious figure
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Mandate Of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven
Heaven
or Tin Ming, Tian
Tian
Ming (Chinese: 天命; pinyin: Tiānmìng; Wade–Giles: T'ien-ming) and in various dialectal spellings, is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the Emperor of China. According to this belief, heaven (天, Tian)—which embodies the natural order and will of the universe—bestows the mandate on a just ruler of China, the "Heavenly Son" of the "Celestial Empire". If a ruler was overthrown, this was interpreted as an indication that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate
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Ptolemaic Dynasty
The Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
(/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids (/ˈlædʒɪdz/) or Lagidae (/ˈlædʒɪˌdiː/; Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek[1][2][3][4][5] royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt
Egypt
during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC.[6] They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt
Egypt
after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter "Saviour". The Egyptians
Egyptians
soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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Chinese Sovereign
Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. Several titles and naming schemes have been used throughout history.Contents1 Imperial titles1.1 Emperor 1.2 King 1.3 Son of Heaven2 How to read the titles of a Chinese sovereign 3 Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
naming conventions 4 Self-made titles 5 Foreign titles taken by Chinese rulers 6 Common naming conventions 7 See also 8 ReferencesImperial titles[edit] Emperor[edit] Main article: Emperor of China The characters Huang (皇 huáng "august (ruler)") and Di (帝 dì "divine ruler") had been used separately and never consecutively (see Three August Ones and Five Emperors). The character was reserved for mythological rulers until the first emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang), who created a new title Huangdi (皇帝 in pinyin: huáng dì) for himself in 221 BCE, which is commonly translated as Emperor in English
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Religion In China
Religion
Religion
in China
China
(CFPS 2014)[1][2][note 1]   
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Emperor Of China
The Emperor or Huangdi (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin:  Huángdì) was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917. The holy title of Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ), a title much more elder than the Emperor of China
China
that predates the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
and recognized as the ruler of "All under Heaven" (i.e., the whole world)
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Kinship
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox
Robin Fox
states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends."[1] These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups. Kinship
Kinship
can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures (i.e
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All Under Heaven
Tianxia (Chinese: 天下; pinyin: Tiānxià) is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty. In ancient China, tianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely appointed to the Emperor by universal and well-defined principles of order. The center of this land was directly apportioned to the Imperial court, forming the center of a world view that centered on the Imperial court and went concentrically outward to major and minor officials and then the common citizens, tributary states, and finally ending with the fringe "barbarians". The center of this world view was not exclusionary in nature, and outer groups, such as ethnic minorities and foreign people, who accepted the mandate of the Chinese Emperor were themselves received and included into the Chinese tianxia
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Imperial Era Of Chinese History
Imperial
Imperial
is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial
Imperial
or The
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Osiris
Osiris
Osiris
(/oʊˈsaɪrɪs/, from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic ⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲉ)[1][2] is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead, but more appropriately as the god of transition, resurrection, and regeneration. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side, and holding a symbolic crook and flail
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Yellow Emperor
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi (/ˈhwɑːŋ ˈdiː/),[2] is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity
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Jade Emperor
The Jade
Jade
Emperor (Chinese: 玉皇; pinyin: Yù Huáng or 玉帝, Yù Dì) in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god (太帝 tài dì). In Taoist theology he is Yuanshi Tianzun, one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao. He is also the Cao Đài ("Highest Power") of Caodaism
Caodaism
known as Ngọc Hoàng Thượng đế
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Auctoritas
Auctoritas
Auctoritas
is a Latin
Latin
word and is the origin of English "authority". While historically its use in English was restricted to discussions of the political history of Rome, the beginning of phenomenological philosophy in the 20th century expanded the use of the word.[citation needed] In ancient Rome, Auctoritas
Auctoritas
referred to the general level of prestige a person had in Roman society, and, as a consequence, his clout, influence, and ability to rally support around his will. Auctoritas was not merely political, however; it had a numinous content and symbolized the mysterious "power of command" of heroic Roman figures. Noble women could also achieve a degree of Auctoritas. For example, the wives, sisters, and mothers of the Julio-Claudians had immense influence on society, the masses, and the political apparatus
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Patrician (ancient Rome)
The patricians (from Latin: patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the early Republic—but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
(494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the Western Empire fell, it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire. Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of leading burgess families in many medieval Italian republics, such as Venice and Genoa, and subsequently "patrician" became a vague term used for aristocrats and the higher bourgeoisie in many countries.Contents1 Origin 2 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Empire2.1 Status 2.2 Patricians vs
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