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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth
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Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Cosmogony
(or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.[1][2] Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Compared with cosmology 4 Theoretical scenarios 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Koine Greek
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Master Of Arts
A Master of Arts
Arts
(Latin: Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Latin: Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts
Arts
in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics
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PhD
A Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
(PhD, Ph.D., DPhil, or Dr. phil.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr") or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, and may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD" (depending on the awarding institute). The requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates
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Bachelor Of Arts
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin
Latin
baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors
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Prussia
Prussia
Prussia
(/ˈprʌʃə/; German:  Preußen (help·info) [ˈpʁɔʏ̯sən]) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor
German Chancellor
Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg
Königsberg
and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire
German Empire
under Prussian leadership
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Sextus Empiricus
Sextus Empiricus
Sextus Empiricus
(Greek: Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens. His philosophical work is the most complete surviving account of ancient Greek and Roman Pyrrhonism. In his medical work, as reflected by his name, tradition maintains that he belonged to the empiric school in which Pyrrhonism was popular. However, at least twice in his writings, Sextus seems to place himself closer to the methodic school
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Practical Reason
In philosophy, practical reason is the use of reason to decide how to act. It contrasts with theoretical reason, often called speculative reason, the use of reason to decide what to follow. For example, agents use practical reason to decide whether to build a telescope but theoretical reason to decide which of two theories of light and optics is the best.Contents1 Overview 2 In argumentation2.1 Argumentation scheme for instrumental practical reasoning 2.2 Argumentation scheme for value-based practical reasoning3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksOverview[edit] Practical reason is understood by most philosophers as determining a plan of action. Thomistic ethics defines the first principle of practical reason as "good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided."[1] For Kant, practical reason has a law-abiding quality because the categorical imperative is understood to be binding one to one's duty rather than subjective preferences
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Noology
Noology derives from the ancient Greek words νοῦς, nous or "mind" and λόγος, logos. Noology thus outlines a systematic study and organization of everything dealing with knowing and knowledge.Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 Notes and references 4 External linksOverview[edit] In the Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant uses "noology" synonymously with rationalism, distinguishing it from empiricism:[Philosophers have differed from each other with] respect to the origin of pure rational knowledge, and as to whether it is derived from experience, or has its origin independently of experience, in reason. Aristotle may be considered as the head of the empiricists, Plato of the noologists
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Ontotheology
Ontotheology means the ontology of God and/or the theology of being. While the term was first used by Immanuel Kant, it has only come into broader philosophical parlance with the significance it took for Martin Heidegger's later thought
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Alexander Baumgarten
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
(17 July[3] 1714 – 27 May[3] 1762) was a German philosopher. He was a brother to theologian Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten (1706–1757).Contents1 Biography 2 Philosophical work2.1 Views on aesthetics3 Reception 4 Metaphysics 5 Works5.1 English translations6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBiography[edit] Baumgarten was born in Berlin
Berlin
as the fifth of seven sons of the pietist pastor of the garrison, Jacob Baumgarten, and of his wife Rosina Elisabeth
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Abstract And Concrete
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics. Abstract objects are sometimes called abstracta (sing. abstractum) and concrete objects are sometimes called concreta (sing. concretum)
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Noumenon
In metaphysics, the noumenon (/ˈnuːmənɒn/, also UK: /ˈnaʊmənɒn/; from Greek: νοούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.[1][2] The term noumenon is generally used when contrasted with, or in relation to, the term phenomenon, which refers to anything that can be apprehended by or is an object of the senses
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