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Imine
An imine (/ɪˈmiːn/ or /ˈɪmɪn/) is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond. The nitrogen atom can be attached to a hydrogen (H) or an organic group (R). If this group is not a hydrogen atom, then the compound can sometimes be referred to as a Schiff base.[1] The carbon atom has two additional single bonds.[2][3][4] The term "imine" was coined in 1883 by the German chemist Albert Ladenburg.[5]Contents1 Nomenclature and classification 2 Synthesis of imines2.1 More specialized methods3 Imine
Imine
reactions3.1 Acid-base reactions 3.2 As ligands 3.3 Imine
Imine
reductions4 Biological role 5 See also 6 ReferencesNomenclature and classification[edit] Usually imines refer to compounds with the connectivity R2C=NR, as discussed below. In the older literature, imine refers to the aza analogue of an epoxide
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Enol Ether
An enol ether is an alkene with an alkoxy substituent.[1] The general structure is R 1 R 2 C = C R 3 − O − R 4 displaystyle R_ 1 R_ 2 C=CR_ 3 -O-R_ 4 with R an alkyl or an aryl group. Enol ethers and enamines are so-called activated alkenes or electron rich alkenes because the oxygen atom donates electrons to the double bond by forming a resonance structure with the corresponding oxonium ion. This property makes them reactive substrates in certain organic reactions such as the Diels-Alder reaction. An enol ether can be considered the ether of the corresponding enolate, hence the name. Two simple enol ethers are methyl vinyl ether and 2,3-dihydrofuran. See also[edit]Silyl enol etherReferences[edit]^ Clayden, Jonathan; Greeves, Nick; Warren, Stuart (2012). Organic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press
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Asinger Reaction
The Asinger-reaction was invented in 1956 by Friedrich Asinger.[1] The Asinger-reaction is a multicomponent reaction and is sometimes referred to as A-4CR (short for Asinger-4 component reaction): An α-halogenated carbonyl-component reacts with sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) and forms a Thiol
Thiol
in situ. The thiol reacts directly with another carbonyl component and ammonia to form a thiazoline
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Molecular Sieve
A molecular sieve is a material with pores (very small holes) of uniform size. These pore diameters are similar in size to small molecules, and thus large molecules cannot enter or be adsorbed, while smaller molecules can. As a mixture of molecules migrate through the stationary bed of porous, semi-solid substance referred to as a sieve (or matrix), the components of highest molecular weight (which are unable to pass into the molecular pores) leave the bed first, followed by successively smaller molecules. Some molecular sieves are used in chromatography, a separation technique that sorts molecules based on their size. Other molecular sieves are used as desiccants (some examples include activated charcoal and silica gel).[1] The diameter of a molecular sieve is measured in ångströms (Å) or nanometres (nm)
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Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium
Magnesium
sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom
Epsom
salt. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.[1] Epsom
Epsom
salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom
Epsom
salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops
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Titanium Ethoxide
Titanium
Titanium
ethoxide is a chemical compound with the formula Ti4(OCH2CH3)16. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in organic solvents but hydrolyzes readily. It is sold commercially as a colorless solution. Alkoxides
Alkoxides
of titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) are used in organic synthesis and materials science. They adopt more complex structures than suggested by their empirical formulas.[1]Contents1 Syntheses 2 Structure 3 Related compounds3.1 Titanium
Titanium
methoxide 3.2 Titanium
Titanium
isopropoxide 3.3 Zirconium ethoxide 3.4 Zirconium propoxide4 Reactions 5 ReferencesSyntheses[edit] Titanium
Titanium
ethoxide is prepared by treating titanium tetrachloride with ethanol in the presence of an amine:[2]TiCl4 + 4 EtOH + 4 Et3N → Ti(OEt)4 + 4 Et3NHClThe purity of titanium ethoxide is commonly assayed by proton NMR spectroscopy
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Carbon Acid
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).[1] Absent π delocalization, carbanions assume a trigonal pyramidal, bent, or linear geometry when the carbanionic carbon is bound to three (e.g., methyl anion), two (e.g., phenyl anion), or one (e.g., acetylide anion) substituents, respectively. Formally, a carbanion is the conjugate base of a carbon acid:R3C-H + B− → R3C− + H-Bwhere B stands for the base. A carbanion is one of several reactive intermediates in organic chemistry. In organic synthesis, organolithium reagents and Grignard reagents
Grignard reagents
are commonly regarded as carbanions
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Hydrazoic Acid
Hydrazoic acid, also known as hydrogen azide or azoimide,[2] is a compound with the chemical formula HN3.[3] It is a colorless, volatile, and explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, and is therefore a pnictogen hydride. It was first isolated in 1890 by Theodor Curtius.[4] The acid has few applications, but its conjugate base, the azide ion, is useful in specialized processes. Hydrazoic acid
Hydrazoic acid
is soluble in water. Undiluted hydrazoic acid is dangerously explosive[5] with a standard enthalpy of formation ΔfHo (l, 298K) = +264 kJmol−1).[6] When dilute, the gas and aqueous solutions (<10%) can be safely handled.Contents1 Production 2 Reactions 3 Toxicity 4 Applications 5 References 6 External linksProduction[edit] The acid is usually formed by acidification of an azide salt like sodium azide
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Primary (chemistry)
Primary is a term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds (e.g. alcohols, alkyl halides, amines) or reactive intermediates (e.g
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Acetone Azine
Acetone
Acetone
ketazine Dimethyl ketazine 2-Propanone, 2-(1-methylethylidene)hydrazone Acetone
Acetone
isopropylidenehydrazone Dipropan-2-ylidenehydrazine Diisopropylidene hydrazine N-(propan-2-ylideneamino)propan-2-imineIdentifiers
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Grignard Reaction
The Grignard reaction
Grignard reaction
(pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.[1][2] This reaction is an important tool for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds.[3][4] The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.[5]Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist François Auguste Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
(University of Nancy, France), who published it in 1900 and was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for this work.[6] Grignard reagents are similar to organolithium reagents because both are strong nucleophiles that can form new carbon–carbon bonds
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
(/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification
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Aminal
An aminal or aminoacetal is a functional group or type of organic compound that has two amine groups attached to the same carbon atom: -C(NR2)(NR2)-. (As is customary in organic chemistry, R can represent hydrogen or an alkyl group).[1] The aminal and the hemiaminal groups are analogous to hemiacetals and acetals with nitrogen replaced by oxygen. Aminals are encountered in, for instance, the Fischer indole synthesis. Cyclic aminals are well known, being typical derived by the condensation of a diamine and an aldehyde.[2] Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ethers[edit] Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ether derived from an aldehyde Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ether derived from a ketone Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ethers are also sometimes called aminals although it is discouraged by the IUPAC. They have the following structure: R‴-C(NR'2)(OR")-R⁗
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Cucurbituril
Cucurbiturils are macrocyclic molecules made of glycoluril (=C4H2N4O2=) monomers linked by methylene bridges (-CH2-). The oxygen atoms are located along the edges of the band and are tilted inwards, forming a partly enclosed cavity. The name is derived from the resemblance of this molecule with a pumpkin of the family of Cucurbitaceae. Cucurbiturils are commonly written as cucurbit[n]uril, where n is the number of glycoluril units. Two common abbreviations are CB[n], or simply CBn. These compounds are particularly interesting to chemists because they are suitable hosts for an array of neutral and cationic species. The binding mode is thought to occur through hydrophobic interactions, and, in the case of cationic guests, through cation-dipole interactions as well. The dimensions of cucurbiturils are generally on the ~ 10 Å size scale
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Diene
In organic chemistry a diene (/ˈdaɪ.iːn/ DY-een) or diolefin (/daɪˈoʊləfɪn/ dy-OH-lə-fin) is a hydrocarbon that contains two carbon double bonds. Dienes occur occasionally in nature. Conjugated dienes are widely used as monomers in the polymer industry.Contents1 Classes 2 Synthesis of dienes 3 Reactivity and uses3.1 Polymerization 3.2 Cycloadditions 3.3 Other addition reactions 3.4 Metathesis reactions 3.5 Acidity 3.6 As ligands4 See also 5 External links 6 ReferencesClasses[edit] Dienes can be divided into three classes, depending on the relative location of the double bonds:Cumulated dienes have the double bonds sharing a common atom as in a group of compounds called allenes. Conjugated dienes have conjugated double bonds separated by one single bond. Unconjugated dienes have the double bonds separated by two or more single bonds. They are usually less stable than isomeric conjugated dienes
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