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Igneous
IGNEOUS ROCK (derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or MAGMATIC ROCK, is one of the three main rock types , the others being sedimentary and metamorphic . Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava . The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet 's mantle or crust . Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature , a decrease in pressure , or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses
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Ore
An ORE is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock. The ores are extracted from the earth through mining ; they are then refined (often via smelting ) to extract the valuable element, or elements. The grade or concentration of an ore mineral , or metal , as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighed against the metal value contained in the rock to determine what ore can be processed and what ore is of too low a grade to be worth mining. Metal ores are generally oxides , sulfides , silicates , or "native" metals (such as native copper ) that are not commonly concentrated in the Earth
Earth
's crust , or "noble" metals (not usually forming compounds) such as gold
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Tungsten
TUNGSTEN, also known as WOLFRAM, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. The name tungsten comes from the former Swedish name for the tungstate mineral scheelite , from tung sten "heavy stone". Its name in Swedish is VOLFRAM, in order to distinguish it from scheelite. Tungsten is a hard, rare metal (under standard conditions, when uncombined), and is found naturally on Earth almost exclusively in chemical compounds. It was identified as a new element in 1781, and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite . The free element is remarkable for its robustness, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3422 °C (6192 °F, 3695 K). It also has the second highest boiling point , at 5930 °C (10706 °F, 6203 K). Its high density is 19.3 times that of water, comparable to that of uranium and gold , and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead
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Tin
TIN is a chemical element with symbol SN (from Latin Latin : stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table . It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite , which contains tin dioxide , SnO2. Tin
Tin
shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead , and has two main oxidation states , +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin
Tin
is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes : at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air
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Chromium
CHROMIUM is a chemical element with symbol CR and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6 . It is a steely-grey, lustrous , hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing , and has a high melting point. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color , because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . Chromium
Chromium
metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness
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Terrestrial Planet
A TERRESTRIAL PLANET, TELLURIC PLANET, or ROCKY PLANET is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals . Within the Solar System
Solar System
, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun
Sun
, i.e. Mercury , Venus
Venus
, Earth
Earth
, and Mars
Mars
. The terms "terrestrial planet" and "telluric planet" are derived from Latin words for Earth
Earth
(Terra and Tellus), as these planets are, in terms of composition, "Earth-like". Terrestrial planets have a solid planetary surface , making them substantially different from the larger giant planets , which are composed mostly of some combination of hydrogen , helium , and water existing in various physical states
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Mantle (geology)
The MANTLE is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies . For a mantle to form, the planetary body must be large enough to have undergone the process of planetary differentiation by density . The mantle surrounds the planetary core . The mantle is surrounded by the crust . The terrestrial planets (Earth , Venus
Venus
, Mars
Mars
and Mercury ), the Moon
Moon
, two of Jupiter
Jupiter
's moons (Io and Europa ) and the asteroid Vesta each have a mantle made of silicate rock. Interpretation of spacecraft data suggests that at least two other moons of Jupiter
Jupiter
(Ganymede and Callisto ), as well as Titan and Triton , each have a mantle made of ice or other solid volatile substances
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a STRATUM (plural: STRATA) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Naming * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CHARACTERISTICS The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy . These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park
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Plate Tectonics
PLATE TECTONICS (from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek : τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth
Earth
's lithosphere , since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift , an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates . The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Pressure
PRESSURE (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit
SI unit
of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre ; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi ) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure ; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as  1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water , millimetre of mercury , and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer
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Temperature
TEMPERATURE is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold . Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer , historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement . The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale , denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale . The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities . The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero , at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Absolute Dating
ABSOLUTE DATING is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology . Some scientists prefer the terms CHRONOMETRIC or CALENDAR DATING, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy. Absolute dating provides a numerical age or range in contrast with relative dating which places events in order without any measure of the age between events. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates (coins and written history ). Techniques include tree rings in timbers, radiocarbon dating of wood or bones, and trapped charge dating methods such as thermoluminescence dating of glazed ceramics
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Platinum
PLATINUM is a chemical element with symbol PT and atomic number 78. It is a dense , malleable , ductile , highly unreactive, precious , gray-white transition metal . Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, meaning "little silver". Platinum
Platinum
is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements . It has six naturally occurring isotopes . It is one of the rarer elements in Earth\'s crust , with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg /kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa , which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity . Platinum
Platinum
is one of the least reactive metals
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Crystallite
A CRYSTALLITE is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials. The orientation of crystallites can be random with no preferred direction, called random texture, or directed, possibly due to growth and processing conditions. Fiber
Fiber
texture is an example of the latter. Crystallites are also referred to as GRAINS. The areas where crystallite grains meet are known as grain boundaries . Polycrystalline
Polycrystalline
or multicrystalline materials, or polycrystals are solids that are composed of many crystallites of varying size and orientation. Most inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including all common metals , many ceramics , rocks and ice. The extent to which a solid is crystalline (crystallinity ) has important effects on its physical properties
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Abyssal
The ABYSSAL ZONE or ABYSSOPELAGIC is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean. "Abyss" derives from the Greek word ἄβυσσος, meaning bottomless. At depths of 4,000 to 6,000 metres (13,123 to 19,685 feet), this zone remains in perpetual darkness and never receives daylight. These regions are also characterised by continuous cold and lack of nutrients.The abyssal zone has temperatures around 2 °C to 3 °C (35 °F to 37 °F) through the large majority of its mass. It is the deeper part of the midnight zone which starts in the bathypelagic waters above. Its permanent inhabitants (for example, Riftia pachyptila, (the giant tube worm )) found near hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and the giant squid are able to withstand the immense pressures of the ocean depths, up to 76 megapascals (11,000 psi ; 750 atm ). The area below the abyssal zone is the sparsely inhabited hadal zone . The zone above is the bathyal zone
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United States Geological Survey
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California

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