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Ideology
IDEOLOGY (from Greek ιδεολογία) is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs , conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in ambit than the ideas expressed in concepts such as worldview , imaginary and ontology . Political
Political
ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist and critical-theory accounts. In societies that distinguish between public and private life , every political or economic tendency entails ideology, whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of thought. In the Althusserian sense, ideology is "the imaginary relation to the real conditions of existence"
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International Relations Theory
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Ole Holsti describes international relations theories as acting like pairs of coloured sunglasses that allow the wearer to see only salient events relevant to the theory; e.g., an adherent of realism may completely disregard an event that a constructivist might pounce upon as crucial, and vice versa. The three most prominent theories are realism , liberalism and constructivism . International relations
International relations
theories can be divided into "positivist /rationalist " theories which focus on a principally state-level analysis, and "post-positivist /reflectivist " ones which incorporate expanded meanings of security, ranging from class, to gender, to postcolonial security
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Foreign Policy
The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. The study of such strategies is called foreign policy analysis . In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors . The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries the legislature also has considerable effects
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Anarchy
ANARCHY is the condition of a society , entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy . The word originally meant leaderlessness , but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy : anarchism , which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations . In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government . It can also designate a nation (or anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government or central rule
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Election
An ELECTION is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office . Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature , sometimes in the executive and judiciary , and for regional and local government . This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations . The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype , ancient Athens , where the Elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition , also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot
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Biology And Political Orientation
ORIENTATION may refer to: * Map orientation , the relationship between directions on a map and compass directions * Orientation (mental) , a function of the mind * Orientation (film) , a 1996 short film produced by the Church of Scientology * Orientation of churches is the architectural feature of facing ("orienting"), churches towards the east (Latin: oriens) *
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Voting System
An ELECTORAL SYSTEM is the set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote , who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast , how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending , and other factors that can affect the outcome. Political electoral systems are defined by constitutions and electoral laws, are typically conducted by election commissions , and can use multiple types of elections for different offices
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Dictatorship
DICTATORSHIP is a form of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person (a dictator ) or by a polity , and power is exercized through various mechanisms in order to ensure that the entity's power remains strong. A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism , in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda in order to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators in order to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the west . In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Public Policy
PUBLIC POLICY is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs . The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship
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Policy
A POLICY is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the board of directors or senior governance body within an organization, where procedures or protocols are developed and adopted by senior executive officers . Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making . Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result are often hard to test objectively, e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e.g. password policy. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, as well as individuals
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Adhocracy
ADHOCRACY is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy . The term was coined by Warren Bennis in his 1968 book The Temporary Society, later popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler
Alvin Toffler
in Future Shock , and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations). The concept has been further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg . Adhocracy is characterized by an adaptive, creative and flexible integrative behavior based on non-permanence and spontaneity. It is believed that these characteristics allow adhocracy to respond faster than traditional bureaucratic organizations while being more open to new ideas
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Street-level Bureaucracy
STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRACY is the subset of a public agency or government institution where the civil servants work who have direct contact with members of the general public. Street-level civil servants carry out and/or enforce the actions required by a government's laws and public policies , in areas ranging from safety and security to education and social services . A few examples include police officers , border guards , social workers and public school teachers . These civil servants have direct contact with members of the general public, in contrast with civil servants who do policy analysis or economic analysis, who do not meet the public. Street-level bureaucrats act as liaisons between government policy-makers and citizens and these civil servants implement policy decisions made by senior officials in the public service and/or by elected officials
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Comparative Politics
COMPARATIVE POLITICS is a field in political science , characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method . In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis." In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena
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