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Ideology
IDEOLOGY (from Greek ιδεολογία) is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs , conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in ambit than the ideas expressed in concepts such as _worldview _, _imaginary _ and _ontology _. Political ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist and critical-theory accounts. In societies that distinguish between public and private life , every political or economic tendency entails ideology, whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of thought. In the Althusserian sense, ideology is "the imaginary relation to the real conditions of existence"
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: _Politika_, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries
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Index Of Politics Articles
This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. POLITICS is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments , politics is observed in all human group interactions, including corporate , academic , and religious institutions. Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy . POLITICAL SCIENCE (also known as political studies) is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power . Related areas of study include political philosophy , which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration , which examines the practices of governance
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
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Politics Of Country Subdivisions
This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. Countries where significant powers delegated to federal units or to devolved governments and where the political system is multi-party democracy are more likely to have articles on the politics of their subdivisions. Entities listed in the article List of countries are shows in the article Politics of present-day nations and states
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Political Economy
POLITICAL ECONOMY is a term used for studying production and trade , and their relations with law, custom , and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth . _Political economy_ originated in moral philosophy . It was developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, or _polities _, hence the term _political_ economy. In the late 19th century, the term _economics _ came to replace _political economy_, coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890
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Political History
POLITICAL HISTORY is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders. It is interrelated to other fields of history, especially diplomatic history , as well as constitutional history and public history. Political history studies the organization and operation of power in large societies. By focusing on the elites in power, on their impact on society, on popular response, and on the relationships with the elites in other social history , which focuses predominantly on the actions and lifestyles of ordinary people, or people\'s history , which is historical work from the perspective of the common people. In two decades from 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history rose from 31% to 41%, and the proportion of political historians fell from 40% to 30%
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Political History Of The World
The political history of the world is the history of the various political entities created by the human race throughout their existence and the way these states define their borders. Throughout history, political entities have expanded from basic systems of self-governance and monarchy to the complex democratic and totalitarian systems that exist today. In parallel, political systems have expanded from vaguely defined frontier-type boundaries , to the national definite boundaries existing today. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient history * 2 Middle ages * 3 Early modern era * 4 Modern era * 5 References ANCIENT HISTORYIn ancient history, civilizations did not have definite boundaries as states have today, and their borders could be more accurately described as frontiers . Early dynastic Sumer , and early dynastic Egypt were the first civilizations to define their borders
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Political Philosophy
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, or POLITICAL THEORY, is the study of topics such as politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of a legal code by authority : what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology "
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Political System
A POLITICAL SYSTEM is a system of politics and government . It is usually compared to the legal system , economic system , cultural system , and other social systems . However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be. CONTENTS * 1 Anthropological forms * 2 Political parties * 3 Sociology * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links ANTHROPOLOGICAL FORMSAnthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized
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Anarchy
ANARCHY is the condition of a society , entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy . The word originally meant leaderlessness , but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
adopted the term in his treatise _ What Is Property? _ to refer to a new political philosophy : anarchism , which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations . In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government . It can also designate a nation (or anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government or central rule
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City-state
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore , Monaco
Monaco
, and Vatican City
Vatican City
. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Democracy
DEMOCRACY (Greek : δημοκρατία, _dēmokratía_ literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament . Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules
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Federacy
A FEDERACY is a form of government where one or several substate units enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units. To some extent, such an arrangement can be considered as similar to asymmetric federalism
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word _feodum_ or _feudum_ (fief), then in use, the term _feudalism_ and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), _feudalism_ describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Dictatorship
DICTATORSHIP is a form of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person (a dictator ) or by a polity , and power is exercized through various mechanisms in order to ensure that the entity's power remains strong. A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism , in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda in order to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators in order to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the west . In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government
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