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Ideology
Ideology
Ideology
is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs, conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in scope than the ideas expressed in concepts such as worldview, imaginary and ontology.[1] Political ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist
Marxist
and critical-theory accounts
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Feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Theocracy
Theocracy
Theocracy
is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
has this definition:1. a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God
God
or a god. 1.1. the commonwealth of Israel
Israel
from the time of Moses
Moses
until the election of Saul as King.[2][3]An ecclesiocracy is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was also the temporal ruler. Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two 'arms'—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy
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Anarchy
Anarchy
Anarchy
is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.[1][2] Colloquially, it can also refer to a society experiencing widespread turmoil and collapse. The word originally meant leaderlessness, but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy: anarchism, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations. In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
(/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/) refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.[1] Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials.[2] Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution, whether publicly owned or privately owned.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has developed negative connotations.[10
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Street-level Bureaucracy
Street-level bureaucracy
Street-level bureaucracy
is the subset of a public agency or government institution where the civil servants work who have direct contact with members of the general public. Street-level civil servants carry out and/or enforce the actions required by a government's laws and public policies, in areas ranging from safety and security to education and social services. A few examples include police officers, border guards, social workers and public school teachers. These civil servants have direct contact with members of the general public, in contrast with civil servants who do policy analysis or economic analysis, who do not meet the public
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Adhocracy
Adhocracy is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy. The term was coined by Warren Bennis in his 1968 book The Temporary Society,[1] later popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler
Alvin Toffler
in Future Shock, and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations[citation needed]). The concept has been further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg. Adhocracy is characterized by an adaptive, creative and flexible integrative behavior based on non-permanence and spontaneity
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Policy
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result are often hard to test objectively, e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e.g. password policy.[1] The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, as well as individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy differs from rules or law
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Public Policy
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.Contents1 Overview 2 Government
Government
actions and process 3 Academic discipline 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingOverview[edit] The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation
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Public Policy Doctrine
In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (lit. Fr. "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state. This addresses the social, moral and economic values that tie a society together: values that vary in different cultures and change over time. Law regulates behaviour either to reinforce existing social expectations or to encourage constructive change, and laws are most likely to be effective when they are consistent with the most generally accepted societal norms and reflect the collective morality of the society. In performing this function, Cappalli has suggested that the critical values of any legal system include impartiality, neutrality, certainty, equality, openness, flexibility, and growth. This assumes that a state's courts function as dispute resolution systems, which avoid the violence that often otherwise accompanies private resolution of disputes
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Domestic Policy
Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in world politics. Domestic policy covers a wide range of areas, including business, education, energy, healthcare, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare, and personal rights and freedoms. Issues[edit] Many domestic policy debates concern the appropriate level of government involvement in economic and social affairs. Traditionally, conservatives believe that the government should not play a major role in regulating business and managing the economy. Most conservatives also believe that government action cannot solve the problems of poverty and economic inequality. Most liberals, however, support government programs that seek to provide economic security, ease human suffering, and reduce inequality
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Foreign Electoral Intervention
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country
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Comparative Politics
Comparative politics is a field in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis."[1] In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena
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