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Id You Know
Knowledge
Knowledge
is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge
Knowledge
can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject
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Knowledge (other)
Knowledge
Knowledge
is a detailed familiarity with, or understanding of, a person, thing or situation. Knowledge
Knowledge
may also refer to:a concept in English law, see knowingly The knowledge, geographical training for London taxi drivers, see Ta
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Complutense University Of Madrid
The Complutense University
Complutense University
of Madrid
Madrid
(Spanish: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Madrid
or Universidad de Madrid, Latin: Universitas Complutensis) is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world
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Truth
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Time
Time
Saving Truth
Truth
from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737Truth, holding a mirror and a serpent (1896). Olin Levi Warner, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. Truth
Truth
is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.[1] Truth
Truth
may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity. Truth
Truth
is usually held to be opposite to falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art, and religion
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Belief
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Belief
Belief
is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true.[1] In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: pistis and doxa. Simplified, we may say that pistis refers to "trust" and "confidence", while doxa refers to "opinion" and "acceptance". The English word "orthodoxy" derives from doxa
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Gettier Case
The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem with our understanding of knowledge. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called "Gettier-cases") challenged the long-held justified true belief (or JTB) account of knowledge. On the JTB account, knowledge is equivalent to justified true belief, and if all three conditions (justification, truth, and belief) are met of a given claim, then we have knowledge of that proposition. In his three-page 1963 paper, titled "Is Justified True Belief
Belief
Knowledge?", Gettier showed, by means of two counterexamples, that there were cases where individuals had justified the true belief of a claim but still failed to know it because the reasons for the belief, while justified, turned out to be false. Thus, Gettier claimed to have shown that the JTB account was inadequate—it could not account for all of the knowledge
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Robert Nozick
Robert Nozick
Robert Nozick
(/ˈnoʊzɪk/; November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher. He held the Joseph Pellegrino University Professorship at Harvard University,[3] and was president of the American Philosophical Association. He is best known for his books Philosophical Explanations (1981), which included his counterfactual theory of knowledge, and Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), a libertarian answer to John Rawls' A Theory of Justice (1971), in which Nozick also presented his own theory of utopia as one in which people can freely choose the rules of the society they enter into. His other work involved ethics, decision theory, philosophy of mind, metaphysics and epistemology
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Simon Blackburn
Simon Blackburn
Simon Blackburn
FBA (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy. He retired as the professor of philosophy at the University of Cambridge in 2011, but remains a distinguished research professor of philosophy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, teaching every fall semester. He is also a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a member of the professoriate of New College of the Humanities.[1] He was previously a Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford and has also taught full-time at the University of North Carolina as an Edna J. Koury Professor. He is a former president of the Aristotelian Society, having served the 2009–2010 term
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Richard Kirkham
Richard Ladd Kirkham (born June 18, 1955) is an American philosopher. Among his published works[1] are the much-cited Theories of Truth (MIT Press, 1992), "Does the Gettier Problem Rest on a Mistake?" Mind (1984. Vol.93, No.372),[2] and "On Paradoxes and a Surprise Exam" Philosophia (1991). Kirkham graduated from Cornell College
Cornell College
in 1977 and received his Ph.D. from the University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
in 1983. Kirkham is probably best known for his work on analytic theories of truth. In his praised[3] book, Theories of Truth, Kirkham describes the largely overlooked fact that the various theories of truth proposed through the centuries are really not all competitors of each other because they are often intended to answer distinct questions about truth
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Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein
Wittgenstein
(/ˈvɪtɡənˌstaɪn/;[6] German: [ˈvɪtgənˌʃtaɪn]; 26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.[7] From 1929 to 1947, Wittgenstein
Wittgenstein
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Moore's Paradox
Moore's paradox concerns the apparent absurdity involved in asserting a first-person present-tense sentence such as, "It's raining, but I don't believe that it is raining" or "It's raining but I believe that it is not raining." The first author to note this apparent absurdity was G. E
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Family Resemblance
Family resemblance
Family resemblance
(German: Familienähnlichkeit) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book Philosophical Investigations (1953).[1] It argues that things which could be thought to be connected by one essential common feature may in fact be connected by a series of overlapping similarities, where no one feature is common to all of the things. Games, which Wittgenstein used as an example to explain the notion, have become the paradigmatic example of a group that is related by family resemblances
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Anna Hyatt Huntington
Anna Vaughn Hyatt Huntington (March 10, 1876 – October 4, 1973) was an American sculptor and was once among New York City's most prominent sculptors. At a time when very few women were successful artists, she had a thriving career. Hyatt Huntington exhibited often, traveled widely, received critical acclaim at home and abroad, and won awards and commissions. During the first two decades of the 20th century, Hyatt Huntington became famous for her animal sculptures, which combine vivid emotional depth with skillful realism
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Symbolic Linguistic Representation
A symbolic linguistic representation is a representation of an utterance that uses symbols to represent linguistic information about the utterance, such as information about phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, or semantics. Symbolic linguistic representations are different from non-symbolic representations, such as recordings, because they use symbols to represent linguistic information rather than measurements. A typical kind of symbolic linguistic representation is phonetic transcription. Symbolic linguistic representations are frequently used in computational linguistics.This computational linguistics-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis phonetics article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis linguistic morphology article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis syntax-related article is a stub
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Statement (logic)
In logic, the term statement is variously understood to mean either:(a) a meaningful declarative sentence that is true or false, or (b) the assertion that is made by a true or false declarative sentence.In the latter case, a statement is distinct from a sentence in that a sentence is only one formulation of a statement, whereas there may be many other formulations expressing the same statement.Contents1 Overview 2 As an abstract entity 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] Philosopher of language, Peter Strawson advocated the use of the term "statement" in sense (b) in preference to proposition. Strawson used the term "Statement" to make the point that two declarative sentences can make the same statement if they say the same thing in different ways
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Semiotician
Semiotics
Semiotics
(also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication. It is not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology, which is a subset of semiotics.[1][2] Semiotics includes the study of signs and sign processes, indication, designation, likeness, analogy, allegory, metonymy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems. Semiotics
Semiotics
is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication.[3] Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however
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