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IBM
IBM
IBM
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York , United States
United States
, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware , middleware and software , and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology . IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business (as of 2017) for 24 consecutive years
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Technology
TECHNOLOGY ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia ) is the collection of techniques , skills , methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation . Technology
Technology
can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools . The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment
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Multinational Corporation
A MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION (MNC) or WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in two or more countries other than their home country. A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE (MNE), a TRANSNATIONAL ENTERPRISE (TNE), a TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION (TNC), an INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, or a STATELESS CORPORATION. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION and WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE. Multinational corporations are criticized as being in lack of ethical standards , and that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, and even the military backing off their own wealthy host nation-states
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Asset
In financial accounting , an ASSET is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset). The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business . One can classify assets into two major asset classes: tangible assets and intangible assets . Tangible assets contain various subclasses, including current assets and fixed assets . Current assets include inventory , while fixed assets include such items as buildings and equipment . Intangible assets are nonphysical resources and rights that have a value to the firm because they give the firm some kind of advantage in the marketplace
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Net Income
In business , NET INCOME (TOTAL COMPREHENSIVE INCOME, NET EARNINGS, NET PROFIT, informally, BOTTOM LINE) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold , expenses and taxes for an accounting period . It is computed as the residual of all revenues and gains over all expenses and losses for the period, and has also been defined as the net increase in shareholders\' equity that results from a company's operations. In the context of the presentation of financial statements , the IFRS Foundation defines net income as synonymous with PROFIT AND LOSS. Net income
Net income
is a distinct accounting concept from profit but the same as net profit. Net income
Net income
can also be calculated by adding a company's operating income to non-operating income and then subtracting off taxes
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Middleware
MIDDLEWARE is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system . It can be described as "software glue". Middleware
Middleware
makes it easier for software developers to implement communication and input/output , so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application. CONTENTS * 1 In distributed applications * 2 Other examples * 3 Boundaries * 4 Origins * 5 See also * 6 References IN DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS Software
Software
architecture: Middleware
Middleware
Main article: Middleware (distributed applications) The term is most commonly used for software that enables communication and management of data in distributed applications
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Computer Software
COMPUTER SOFTWARE, or simply SOFTWARE, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering , computer software is all information processed by computer systems , programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs , libraries and related non-executable data , such as online documentation or digital media . Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor —typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state
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Market (economics)
A MARKET is one of the many varieties of systems , institutions , procedures , social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter , most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets facilitate trade and enable the distribution and resource allocation in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be evaluated and priced . A market emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership ) of services and goods
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Commoditization
In business literature, COMMODITIZATION is defined as the process by which goods that have economic value and are distinguishable in terms of attributes (uniqueness or brand ) end up becoming simple commodities in the eyes of the market or consumers . It is the movement of a market from differentiated to undifferentiated price competition and from monopolistic to perfect competition . Hence, the key effect of commoditization is that the pricing power of the manufacturer or brand owner is weakened: when products become more similar from a buyer's point of view, they will tend to buy the cheapest. This is not to be confused with commodification , which is a Marxist term for things being assigned economic value which they (according to Marxist theory) did not previously possess, by their being produced and presented for sale, as opposed to personal use
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Patents
A PATENT (/ˈpætənt/ or /ˈpeɪtənt/ ) is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention . An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process. :17 Patents are a form of intellectual property . The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty , usefulness , and non-obviousness
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Internet Hosting Service
An INTERNET HOSTING SERVICE is a service that runs Internet
Internet
servers, allowing organizations and individuals to serve content to the Internet. There are various levels of service and various kinds of services offered. A common kind of hosting is web hosting . Most hosting providers offer a combination of services; e-mail hosting , for example. DNS hosting service is usually bundled with domain name registration . Generic kinds of Internet
Internet
hosting provide a server where the clients can run anything they want (including web servers and other servers ) and have Internet
Internet
connections with good upstream bandwidth
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Earnings Before Interest And Taxes
In accounting and finance, EARNINGS BEFORE INTEREST AND TAXES (EBIT), is a measure of a firm's profit that includes all expenses except interest and income tax expenses. It is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses. When a firm does not have non-operating income , OPERATING INCOME is sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit . EBIT = revenue – operating expenses (OPEX) Operating income = revenue – operating expenses A professional investor contemplating a change to the capital structure of a firm (e.g., through a leveraged buyout ) first evaluates a firm's fundamental earnings potential (reflected by earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA ) and EBIT), and then determines the optimal use of debt vs. equity. To calculate EBIT, expenses (e.g. the cost of goods sold , selling and administrative expenses) are subtracted from revenues
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Equity (finance)
In accounting , EQUITY (or OWNER\'S EQUITY) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owed. It is governed by the following equation: Equity = Assets Liabilities {displaystyle {text{Equity}}={text{Assets}}-{text{Liabilities}}} For example, if someone owns a car worth $15,000 (an asset), but owes $5,000 on a loan against that car (a liability), the car represents $10,000 of equity. Equity can be negative if liabilities exceeds assets. SHAREHOLDERS\' EQUITY (or stockholders' equity, shareholders' funds, shareholders' capital or similar terms) represents the equity of a company as divided among shareholders of common or preferred stock . Negative shareholders' equity is often referred to as a shareholders' deficit. Alternatively, equity can also refer to the capital stock of a corporation . The value of the stock depends on the corporation's future economic prospects
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S&P 500
The STANDARD & POOR\'S 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just "the S&P", is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE
NYSE
or NASDAQ
NASDAQ
. The S&P 500 index components and their weightings are determined by S&P Dow Jones Indices . It differs from other U.S. stock market indices, such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
or the Nasdaq Composite index, because of its diverse constituency and weighting methodology . It is one of the most commonly followed equity indices, and many consider it one of the best representations of the U.S. stock market, and a bellwether for the U.S. economy. The National Bureau of Economic Research has classified common stocks as a leading indicator of business cycles
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Ticker Symbol
A TICKER SYMBOL or STOCK SYMBOL is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market . A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. CONTENTS* 1 Interpreting the symbol * 1.1 Other identifiers * 1.2 Symbol for stock market indices * 2 Symbols by country * 2.1 Canada * 2.2 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 2.3 United States
United States
* 2.3.1 Single-letter ticker symbols * 2.4 Other countries * 3 See also * 4 References INTERPRETING THE SYMBOL Stock
Stock
symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. For example, AAPL is for Apple Inc.; OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc.; and HD is for Home Depot, Inc
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Public Company
A PUBLIC COMPANY, PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANY, PUBLICLY HELD COMPANY, PUBLICLY LISTED COMPANY, or PUBLIC CORPORATION is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be listed (listed company ) or unlisted (unlisted public company ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Securities of a company * 2.1 Advantages * 2.2 Disadvantages * 2.3 Stockholders * 3 General trend * 4 Privatization * 5 Trading and valuation * 6 See also * 7 References HISTORY Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock
Stock
Exchange (or Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch), the world's first formal stock exchange
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