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IBM
IBM
IBM
(International Business
Business
Machines Corporation) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S
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Spin Out
A corporate spin-off, also known as a spin-out,[1] or starburst, is a type of corporate action where a company "splits off" a section as a separate business.[2]Contents1 Characteristics1.1 U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission 1.2 Other definitions2 Reasons for spin-offs2.1 Conglomerate discount3 Examples3.1 Academia 3.2 Mirror companies4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingCharacteristics[edit] Spin-offs are divisions of companies or organizations that then become independent businesses with assets, employees, intellectual property, technology, or existing products that are taken from the parent company. Shareholders of the parent company receive equivalent shares in the new company in order to compensate for the loss of equity in the original stocks
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Net Income
In business, net income (total comprehensive income, net earnings, net profit, informally, bottom line) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold, expenses and taxes for an accounting period.[1] It is computed as the residual of all revenues and gains over all expenses and losses for the period,[2] and has also been defined as the net increase in shareholders' equity that results from a company's operations.[3] In the context of the presentation of financial statements, the IFRS Foundation
IFRS Foundation
defines net income as synonymous with profit and loss.[1] Net income
Net income
is the same as net profit but a distinct accounting concept from profit
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Asset
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset).[1] The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary[2] value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business.[1] One can classify assets into two major asset classes: tangible assets and intangible assets. Tangible assets contain various subclasses, including current assets and fixed assets.[3] Current assets include inventory, while fixed assets include such items as buildings and equipment.[4] Intangible assets are nonphysical resources and rights that have a value to the firm because they give the firm some kind of advantage in the marketplace
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Patents
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process.[1]:17 Patents are a form of intellectual property. The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty, usefulness, and non-obviousness
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Equity (finance)
In accounting, equity (or owner's equity) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned. It is governed by the following equation: Equity = Assets − Liabilities displaystyle text Equity = text Assets - text Liabilities For example, if someone owns a car worth $15,000 (an asset), but owes $5,000 on a loan against that car (a liability), the car represents $10,000 of equity. Equity can be negative if liabilities exceed assets. Shareholders' equity (or stockholders' equity, shareholders' funds, shareholders' capital or similar terms) represents the equity of a company as divided among shareholders of common or preferred stock. Negative shareholders' equity is often referred to as a shareholders' deficit. Alternatively, equity can also refer to the capital stock of a corporation. The value of the stock depends on the corporation's future economic prospects
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Multinational Corporation
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise[5] is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.[6] A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE), a transnational enterprise (TNE), a transnational corporation (TNC), an international corporation, or a stateless corporation.[7] There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards, and that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, and even the military backing of their own wealthy host nation-states.Contents1 Overview 2 Theoretical background 3 Transnational corporations 4 Multinational enterprise 5
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Technology
Technology
Technology
("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia[2]) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology
Technology
can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment
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Commoditization
In business literature, commoditization is defined as the process by which goods that have economic value and are distinguishable in terms of attributes (uniqueness or brand) end up becoming simple commodities in the eyes of the market or consumers. It is the movement of a market from differentiated to undifferentiated price competition and from monopolistic to perfect competition
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Middleware
Middleware
Middleware
is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be described as "software glue".[1] Middleware
Middleware
makes it easier for software developers to implement communication and input/output, so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application. It gained popularity in the 1980s as a solution to the problem of how to link newer applications to older legacy systems, although the term had been in use since 1968.[2]Contents1 In distributed applications 2 Other examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesIn distributed applications[edit] Main article: Middleware
Middleware
(distributed applications) Software
Software
architecture: MiddlewareThe term is most commonly used for software that enables communication and management of data in distributed applications
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Computer Software
Computer software, or simply software, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware
Computer hardware
and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state
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International Securities Identification Number
An International Securities
Securities
Identification Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. Its structure is defined in ISO 6166
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S&P 500
The Standard & Poor's 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just the S&P,[6][7] is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE
NYSE
or NASDAQ. The S&P 500 index components and their weightings are determined by S&P Dow Jones Indices. It differs from other U.S. stock market indices, such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
or the Nasdaq Composite
Nasdaq Composite
index, because of its diverse constituency and weighting methodology. It is one of the most commonly followed equity indices, and many consider it one of the best representations of the U.S. stock market, and a bellwether for the U.S
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Internet Hosting Service
An Internet
Internet
hosting service is a service that runs Internet
Internet
servers, allowing organizations and individuals to serve content to the Internet. There are various levels of service and various kinds of services offered. A common kind of hosting is web hosting. Most hosting providers offer a combination of services; e-mail hosting, for example
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Ticker Symbol
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine.Contents1 Interpreting the symbol1.1 Other identifiers 1.2 Symbol for stock market indices2 Symbols by country2.1 Canada 2.2 United Kingdom 2.3 United States2.3.1 Single-letter ticker symbols2.4 Other countries3 See also 4 ReferencesInterpreting the symbol[edit] Stock
Stock
symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. For example, AAPL is for Apple Inc.; OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc.; and HD is for Home Depot, Inc. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock
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Public Company
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange
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