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Ibis
The IBISES (collective plural IBIS; classical plurals IBIDES and IBES ) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae , that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains. "Ibis" derives from the Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word for this group of birds. It also occurs in the scientific name of the cattle egret , (Bubulcus ibis), mistakenly identified in 1757 as being the sacred ibis . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Species
Species
in taxonomic order * 3 In culture * 4 Species
Species
images * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONIbises all have long, down-curved bills, and usually feed as a group, probing mud for food items, usually crustaceans . They are monogamous and highly territorial while nesting and feeding. Most nest in trees, often with spoonbills or herons
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Hawaiian Islands
The HAWAIIAN ISLANDS (Hawaiian : Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands , several atolls , numerous smaller islets , and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean , extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll . Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the "SANDWICH ISLANDS", a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich . The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island. The Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893 and the United States annexed the islands in 1898. The U.S
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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Jamaica
JAMAICA (/dʒəˈmeɪkə/ ( listen )) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Jamaica
Jamaica
lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba
Cuba
, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
). Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak
Arawak
and Taíno
Taíno
peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494
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Egyptian Language
The EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages . Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian stage (mid-3rd millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt ). Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian . Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian , the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt which remained the literary language of Egypt
Egypt
until the Roman period . The spoken language evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation
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Extinct
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Extant Taxon
NEONTOLOGY is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology , deals with living or recently extinct organisms . It is the study of living species , genera , families and other taxa with members still alive, as opposed to being all dead or extinct . For example, the moose is an extant species, while the Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
is a long extinct one. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods , as of 1987 , there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species. A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as existing if there are new discoveries of living species ("Lazarus species" ), or if previously-known existing species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Crustacean
Thylacocephala ? † Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca CRUSTACEANS (CRUSTACEA /krʌˈsteɪʃə/ ) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs , lobsters , crayfish , shrimp , krill , woodlice and barnacles . The crustacean group is usually treated as a subphylum , and thanks to recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic , and comprises all animals in the Pancrustacea clade other than hexapods
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; chordates possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; the Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and the Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
, which include the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Heron
About 21 extant, see text Global distribution of herons SYNONYMS Cochlearidae See also: Crane (bird)
Crane (bird)
The HERONS are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family ARDEIDAE, with 64 recognised species , some of which are referred to as "egrets " or "bitterns " rather than herons. Members of the genera Botaurus and Ixobrychus are referred to as "bitterns", and, together with the zigzag heron or zigzag bittern in the monotypic genus Zebrilus, form a monophyletic group within the Ardeidae. Egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons, and tend to be named differently because they are mainly white or have decorative plumes. Although egrets have the same build as herons, they tend to be smaller. Herons, by evolutionary adaptation, have long beaks
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Pelecaniformes
The PELECANIFORMES is an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide. As traditionally—but erroneously—defined, they encompass all birds that have feet with all four toes webbed. Hence, they were formerly also known by such names as TOTIPALMATES or STEGANOPODES. Most have a bare throat patch (gular patch), and the nostrils have evolved into dysfunctional slits, forcing them to breathe through their mouths. They feed on fish, squid or similar marine life. Nesting is colonial, but individual birds are monogamous . The young are altricial , hatching from the egg helpless and naked in most. They lack a brood patch
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Apteribis
See text APTERIBIS is an extinct genus of flightless birds in the ibis subfamily that was endemic to the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean . CONTENTS * 1 Distribution * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Species * 4 References * 4.1 Notes * 4.2 Sources DISTRIBUTIONThe remains of the small ibises in the genus have only been found on the islands of Maui and Molokai , which formed part of the prehistoric island of Maui Nui until about 200,000 years ago when rising sea levels fragmented it. Olson and James speculate that the genus was endemic to Maui Nui, that the ibises were birds of the forest floor , that because of their flightlessness they were susceptible to becoming trapped in lava tubes , and that they may have exerted heavy predation pressure on Maui Nui’s land snails . TAXONOMYAnalysis of the feathers show an affinity to New World ibises of the genus Eudocimus . SPECIESTwo species have been described: * A
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Cattle Egret
B. i. ibis (Linnaeus , 1758 ) B. i. coromandus (Boddaert, 1783) B. i. seychellarum (Salomonsen, 1934) Range of B. ibis breeding non-breeding year-round SYNONYMS Ardea ibis Linnaeus, 1758 Ardeola ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) Bubulcus bubulcus Buphus coromandus (Boddaert, 1783) Cancroma coromanda (Boddaert, 1783) Egretta ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) Lepterodatis ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) The CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae ) found in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus BUBULCUS, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret . Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta , it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea
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