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Ibis
The IBISES (collective plural IBIS; classical plurals IBIDES and IBES ) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains. "Ibis" derives from the Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word for this group of birds. It also occurs in the scientific name of the cattle egret , (Bubulcus ibis), mistakenly identified in 1757 as being the sacred ibis . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Species
Species
in taxonomic order * 3 In culture * 4 Species
Species
images * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONIbises all have long, down-curved bills, and usually feed as a group, probing mud for food items, usually crustaceans . They are monogamous and highly territorial while nesting and feeding. Most nest in trees, often with spoonbills or herons
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Straw-necked Ibis
The STRAW-NECKED IBIS ( Threskiornis spinicollis) is a bird of the ibis and spoonbill family Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
. It can be found throughout Australia
Australia
, New Guinea
New Guinea
, and parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Adults have distinctive straw-like feathers on their neck. Straw-necked ibis flock CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Feeding * 4 Breeding * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONStraw-necked ibises are large birds, around 60–75 cm (23.5–29.5 in) long. They have dark wings that show an iridescent, multicoloured sheen in sunlight, and have a dark back and collar. Most of the neck is white, as are the underparts and undertail. They have a long, black, downcurved bill, and their legs are usually red near the top and dark grey toward the feet
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Pelecaniformes
The PELECANIFORMES is an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide. As traditionally—but erroneously—defined, they encompass all birds that have feet with all four toes webbed. Hence, they were formerly also known by such names as TOTIPALMATES or STEGANOPODES. Most have a bare throat patch (gular patch), and the nostrils have evolved into dysfunctional slits, forcing them to breathe through their mouths. They feed on fish, squid or similar marine life. Nesting is colonial, but individual birds are monogamous . The young are altricial , hatching from the egg helpless and naked in most. They lack a brood patch
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Threskiornithidae
The family THRESKIORNITHIDAE includes 34 species of large wading birds. The family has been traditionally classified into two subfamilies, the IBISES and the SPOONBILLS ; however recent genetic studies are casting doubt on the arrangement, and revealing the spoonbills to be nested within the old world ibises, and the new world ibises as an early offshoot. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Description * 3 Distribution and ecology * 4 Species * 5 References * 6 External links TAXONOMYThe family Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
was formerly known as Plataleidae. The spoonbills and ibises were once thought to be related to other groups of long-legged wading birds in the order Ciconiiformes
Ciconiiformes
. A recent study found that they are members of the order Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes

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Threskiornis
T. aethiopicus T. bernieri T. melanocephalus T. molucca †T. solitarius T. spinicollis THRESKIORNIS is a genus of ibises , wading birds of the family Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
. They occur in the warmer parts of the Old World in southern Asia
Asia
, Australasia and Sub-Saharan Africa . They are colonial breeders, which build a stick nest in a tree or bush and lay two to four eggs . They occur in marshy wetlands and feed on various fish , frogs , crustaceans and insects . DESCRIPTIONAdult Threskiornis
Threskiornis
ibises are typically 75 cm long and have white body plumage. The bald head, neck and legs are black. The bill is thick and curved. Sexes are similar, but juveniles have whiter necks duller plumage
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Pseudibis
Pseudibis papillosa
Pseudibis papillosa
Pseudibis
Pseudibis
davisoni The bird genus PSEUDIBIS consists of two South-East Asian species in the ibis subfamily, Threskiornithinae. The giant ibis is also sometimes placed in this genus
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Thaumatibis
Pseudibis
Pseudibis
gigantea The GIANT IBIS (Thaumatibis gigantea), the only species in the monotypic genus Thaumatibis, is a wading bird of the ibis family, Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
. It is confined to northern Cambodia
Cambodia
, with a few birds surviving in extreme southern Laos
Laos
and a recent sighting in Yok Đôn National Park , Vietnam
Vietnam
. CONTENTS * 1 Habitat and range * 2 Description * 3 Life history * 4 Status * 5 References * 6 External links HABITAT AND RANGEThe giant ibis is a lowland bird that occurs in marshes , swamps , lakes , wide rivers , flooded plains and semi-open forests as well as pools, ponds and seasonal water-meadows in denser deciduous forest . It generally is found in lowlands. One bird was collected in a Malay paddyfield
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Geronticus
Geronticus calvus
Geronticus calvus
Geronticus eremita
Geronticus eremita
For fossil species, see text The small bird genus GERONTICUS belongs to the ibis subfamily (Threskiornithinae). Its name is derived from the Greek gérontos (γέρωντος, "old man") in reference to the bald head of these dark-plumaged birds; in English they are called BALD IBISES. Geronticus
Geronticus
contains two living species . The northern bald ibis (G. eremita) has a neck crest of elongated feathers . It is a Critically Endangered species found around the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
. Its range had expanded after the last glacial period to the Alps
Alps
of Germany
Germany
and even a bit further north, but it was rendered extinct there mainly due to habitat destruction and unsustainable hunting . The southern bald ibis (G
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Nipponia
Asian crested ibis The CRESTED IBIS (Nipponia nippon), also known as the JAPANESE CRESTED IBIS or TOKI (トキ), variously written in kanji as 朱鷺, 鴇, 鵇, 鴾, or 桃花鳥, and written in hanzi as 朱䴉 or 朱鷺, is a large (up to 78.5 cm (30.9 in) long), white-plumaged ibis of pine forests. Its head is partially bare, showing red skin, and it has a dense crest of white plumes on the nape . This species is the only member of the genus Nipponia. They make their nests at the tops of trees on hills usually overlooking their habitat. Crested ibises usually eat frogs, small fish, and small animals. At one time, the crested ibis was widespread in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Russia. It has now disappeared from most of its former range
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Bostrychia
BOSTRYCHIA Bostrychia hagedash SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
Subfamily: Threskiornithinae Genus: BOSTRYCHIA G.R. Gray , 1847 BOSTRYCHIA is a genus of ibises in the family Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
. Member species are found in many countries throughout Africa
Africa

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Theristicus
THERISTICUS is a genus of birds in the family Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae
. They are found in open, grassy habitats in South America
South America
. All have a long, decurved dark bill , relatively short reddish legs that do not extend beyond the tail in flight (unlike e.g. Eudocimus and Plegadis ), and at least the back is grey. TAXONOMYFormerly, T. caudatus included T. melanopis as a subspecies , but today all major authorities accept the split . * Plumbeous ibis
Plumbeous ibis
, Theristicus
Theristicus
caerulescens * Buff-necked ibis
Buff-necked ibis
, Theristicus
Theristicus
caudatus * Black-faced ibis , Theristicus
Theristicus
melanopis * Andean ibis , Theristicus
Theristicus
branickiiREFERENCES * Matheu, E., & J. del Hoyo (1992)
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