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IUCN Red List
The IUCN
IUCN
RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES (also known as the IUCN
IUCN
RED LIST or RED DATA LIST), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN
IUCN
Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction
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Subspecies (biology)
In biological classification , SUBSPECIES (abbreviated "SUBSP." or "SSP."; plural : "subspecies") is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species , or a taxonomic unit in that rank. A subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two (including any that are extinct). In zoology , under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology , under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , other infraspecific ranks , such as variety , may be named. In bacteriology and virology , under standard bacterial nomenclature and virus nomenclature , there are recommendations but not strict requirements for recognizing other important infraspecific ranks. A taxonomist decides whether to recognize a subspecies or not
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Variety (biology)
In botanical nomenclature , VARIETY (abbreviated VAR.; in Latin : varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form . As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name . It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species. CONTENTS * 1 Example * 2 Definitions * 3 Other nomenclature uses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography EXAMPLEThe pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico
Mexico
, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Peer Review
PEER REVIEW is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers). It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field . Peer review
Peer review
methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia , scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper 's suitability for publication . Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g., medical peer review . CONTENTS * 1 Professional * 2 Scholarly * 3 Government policy * 4 Medical * 5 See also * 6 References PROFESSIONALProfessional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification
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Switzerland
SWITZERLAND (/ˈswɪtsərlənd/ ), officially the SWISS CONFEDERATION, is a federal republic in Europe
Europe
. It consists of 26 cantons , and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western -Central Europe
Europe
, and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps
Alps
, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura , spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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World Conservation Monitoring Centre
The UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) is an executive agency of the United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
, based in Cambridge
Cambridge
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. UNEP-WCMC has been part of UNEP since 2000, and has responsibility for biodiversity assessment and support to policy development and implementation
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Fish Stock
FISH STOCKS are subpopulations of a particular species of fish , for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded as the significant factors determining the stock\'s population dynamics , while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are traditionally ignored. CONTENTS * 1 The stock concept * 2 Straddling stock * 3 Stock assessment * 4 Stock fluctuations * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links THE STOCK CONCEPTAll species have geographic limits to their distribution, which are determined by their tolerance to environmental conditions, and their ability to compete successfully with other species. In marine environments this may be less evident than on land because there are fewer topographical boundaries, however, discontinuities still exist, produced for example by mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulations that minimize long-distance dispersal of fish larvae
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Statistical Population
In statistics , a POPULATION is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment . A statistical population can be a group of actually existing objects (e.g. the set of all stars within the Milky Way
Milky Way
galaxy ) or a hypothetical and potentially infinite group of objects conceived as a generalization from experience (e.g. the set of all possible hands in a game of poker ). A common aim of statistical analysis is to produce information about some chosen population. In statistical inference , a subset of the population (a statistical sample ) is chosen to represent the population in a statistical analysis. If a sample is chosen properly , characteristics of the entire population that the sample is drawn from can be estimated from corresponding characteristics of the sample
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Poaching
POACHING has traditionally been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals , usually associated with land use rights . The Poacher by Frédéric Rouge (1867–1950) According to Encyclopædia Britannica, poaching was performed by impoverished peasants for subsistence purposes and a supplement for meager diets. Poaching
Poaching
was as well set against the hunting privileges of nobility and territorial rulers. By contrast, stealing domestic animals (as in cattle raiding , for example) classifies as theft , not as poaching. Since the 1980s, the term "poaching" has also referred to the illegal harvesting of wild plant species. In agricultural terms, the term 'poaching' is also applied to the loss of soils or grass by the damaging action of feet of livestock which can affect availability of productive land, water pollution through increased runoff and welfare issues for cattle
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Russ Mittermeier
RUSSELL ALAN MITTERMEIER (born November 8, 1949) is a primatologist and herpetologist . He has written several books for both popular and scientist audiences, and has authored some 300 scientific papers . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards and honors * 3 Selected bibliography * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYRussell A. Mittermeier is Executive Vice-Chair of Conservation International , and served as President of Conservation International from 1989 to 2014. Named a “hero for the planet” by TIME Magazine, Mittermeier is regarded as a world leader in the fields of primatology, biodiversity and tropical forest conservation
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Ebola Virus
EBOLA VIRUS (/ɛˈboʊlə/ ; EBOV, formerly designated ZAIRE EBOLAVIRUS) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus . Four of the five known ebolaviruses, including EBOV, cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals , known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola virus has caused the majority of human deaths from EVD, and is the cause of the 2013–2015 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa , which has resulted in at least 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 confirmed deaths. Ebola virus and its genus were both originally named for Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo ), the country where it was first described , and was at first suspected to be a new "strain" of the closely related Marburg virus . The virus was renamed "Ebola virus" in 2010 to avoid confusion
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Barcelona
Nickname(s): Ciutat Comtal (ca )/Ciudad Condal (es ) "City of Counts" Cap i Casal de Catalunya (ca ) "Head and Hearth of Catalonia" Abbreviation(s): Barna, BCN Barcelona
Barcelona
Show map of Catalonia
Catalonia

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United Nations Conference On Sustainable Development
The UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (UNCSD), also known as RIO 2012, RIO+20 (Portuguese pronunciation: ), or EARTH SUMMIT 2012 was the third international conference on sustainable development aimed at reconciling the economic and environmental goals of the global community. Hosted by Brazil
Brazil
in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
from 13 to 22 June 2012, Rio+20 was a 20-year follow-up to the 1992 Earth
Earth
Summit / United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in the same city, and the 10th anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg
Johannesburg

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BirdLife International
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL (formerly the INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR BIRD PRESERVATION) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds , their habitats and global biodiversity , working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the world's largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organisations. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Regional work * 2.1 Member organisations * 3 Global programmes * 4 Magazine * 5 Red List * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY BirdLife International
BirdLife International
was founded as in 1922 the International Council for Bird Preservation by American ornithologists T. Gilbert Pearson and Jean Theodore Delacour . It changed its name in 1993 to "BirdLife International"
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Institute Of Zoology
The INSTITUTE OF ZOOLOGY (IoZ) is the research division of the Zoological Society of London
Zoological Society of London
(ZSL) in England. It is a government-funded research institute specialising in scientific issues relevant to the conservation of animal species and their habitats. The Institute is based alongside London Zoo
London Zoo
at ZSL's Regent\'s Park site in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
. The Institute has around 25 full-time research staff, plus postdoctoral research assistants, technicians and Ph.D.
Ph.D.
students
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