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IPv6
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6
IPv6
was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4
IPv4
address exhaustion. IPv6
IPv6
is intended to replace IPv4.[1] IPv6
IPv6
became a Draft Standard in December 1998, but did not formally become an Internet
Internet
Standard until 14 July 2017.[2] Every device on the Internet
Internet
is assigned a unique IP address
IP address
for identification and location definition
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Communications Protocol
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both.[1] Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communication protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.[2] To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Media Access Control
In IEEE 802
IEEE 802
LAN/MAN standards, the medium access control (MAC) sublayer (also known as the media access control sublayer) and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer. Within that data link layer, the LLC provides flow control and multiplexing for the logical link (i.e. EtherType, 802.1Q VLAN tag etc), while the MAC provides flow control and multiplexing for the transmission medium. These two sublayers together correspond to layer 2 of the OSI model. For compatibility reasons, LLC is optional for implementations of IEEE 802.3 (the frames are then "raw"), but compulsory for implementations of all other IEEE 802
IEEE 802
standards
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Real-time Transport Protocol
The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used extensively in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications including WebRTC, television services and web-based push-to-talk features. RTP typically runs over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). RTP is used in conjunction with the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP). While RTP carries the media streams (e.g., audio and video), RTCP is used to monitor transmission statistics and quality of service (QoS) and aids synchronization of multiple streams
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Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
In computer networking, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs) or as part of the delivery of services by ISPs. It does not provide any encryption or confidentiality by itself
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Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
In computer networking, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol. DCCP implements reliable connection setup, teardown, Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), congestion control, and feature negotiation. The IETF
IETF
published DCCP as RFC 4340, a proposed standard, in March 2006. RFC 4336 provides an introduction. DCCP provides a way to gain access to congestion-control mechanisms without having to implement them at the application layer. It allows for flow-based semantics like in Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), but does not provide reliable in-order delivery. Sequenced delivery within multiple streams as in the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is not available in DCCP. A DCCP connection contains acknowledgment traffic as well as data traffic
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XMPP
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communications protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML
XML
(Extensible Markup Language).[1] It enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities.[2] Originally named Jabber,[3] the protocol was developed by the Jabber open-source community in 1999 for near real-time instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance.
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Transport Layer Security
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now prohibited from use by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.[1] Several versions of the protocols find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites are able to use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers. The TLS protocol aims primarily to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating computer applications.[1]:3 When secured by TLS, connections between a client (e.g., a web browser) and a server (e.g.,.org) have one or more of the following properties:The connection is private (or secure) because symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt the data transmitted
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Telnet
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet
Internet
or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet
Internet
Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet
Internet
standards
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Secure Shell
Secure Shell
Secure Shell
(SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.[1] The best known example application is for remote login to computer systems by users. SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client-server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server.[2] Common applications include remote command-line login and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH. The protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The most visible application of the protocol is for access to shell accounts on Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems, but it sees some limited use on Windows
Windows
as well
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) is an Internet Standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behavior. Devices that typically support SNMP include cable modems, routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, and more.[1] SNMP is widely used in network management for network monitoring. SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems organized in a management information base (MIB) which describe the system status and configuration. These variables can then be remotely queried (and, in some circumstances, manipulated) by managing applications. Three significant versions of SNMP have been developed and deployed. SNMPv1 is the original version of the protocol
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Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet
Internet
standard for electronic mail (email) transmission. First defined by RFC 821 in 1982, it was last updated in 2008 with Extended SMTP additions by RFC 5321, which is the protocol in widespread use today. Although electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages, user-level client mail applications typically use SMTP only for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. For retrieving messages, client applications usually use either IMAP or POP3. SMTP communication between mail servers uses TCP port 25. Mail clients on the other hand, often submit the outgoing emails to a mail server on port 587
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Session Initiation Protocol
The Session Initiation Protocol
Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP) is a communications protocol for signaling and controlling multimedia communication sessions in applications of Internet telephony
Internet telephony
for voice and video calls, in private IP telephone systems, as well as in instant messaging over Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP) networks. The protocol defines the specific format of messages exchanged and the sequence of communications for cooperation of the participants
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Real Time Streaming Protocol
The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is a network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers. The protocol is used for establishing and controlling media sessions between end points. Clients of media servers issue VCR-style commands, such as play, record and pause, to facilitate real-time control of the media streaming from the server to a client (Video On Demand) or from a client to the server (Voice Recording). The transmission of streaming data itself is not a task of RTSP. Most RTSP servers use the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) in conjunction with Real-time Control Protocol (RTCP) for media stream delivery. However, some vendors implement proprietary transport protocols
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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
/ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).[1] It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3,[2] and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5
10BASE5
Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches
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Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call
Open Network Computing (ONC) Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a remote procedure call system. ONC was originally developed by Sun Microsystems in the 1980s as part of their Network File System project, and is sometimes referred to as Sun RPC. ONC is based on calling conventions used in Unix
Unix
and the C programming language. It serializes data using the External Data Representation (XDR), which has also found some use to encode and decode data in files that are to be accessed on more than one platform. ONC then delivers the XDR payload using either UDP or TCP. Access to RPC services on a machine are provided via a port mapper that listens for queries on a well-known port (number 111) over UDP and TCP. ONC RPC was described in RFC 1831, published in 1995. RFC 5531, published in 2009, is the current version
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