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ICD-9-CM Volume 3
ICD-9-CM Volume 3 is a system of procedural codes used by health insurers to classify medical procedures for billing purposes. It is a subset of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) 9-CM
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Health Insurance
Health
Health
insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By estimating the overall risk of health care and health system expenses over the risk pool, an insurer can develop a routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to provide the money to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.[1] The benefit is administered by a central organization such as a government agency, private business, or not-for-profit entity. According to the Health
Health
Insurance
Insurance
Association of America, health insurance is defined as "coverage that provides for the payments of benefits as a result of sickness or injury. It includes insurance for losses from accident, medical expense, disability, or accidental death and dismemberment" (p
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Ganglia
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster[1] or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.[2][3] Ganglia house the cell bodies of afferent nerves and efferent nerves. A pseudoganglion looks like a ganglion, but only has nerve fibers and has no nerve cell bodies.Contents1 Structure1.1 Basal ganglia 1.2 Pseudoganglion2 See also 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] Ganglia are primarily made up of somata and dendritic structures which are bundled or connected. Ganglia often interconnect with other ganglia to form a complex system of ganglia known as a plexus
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Nerves
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells
Schwann cells
that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium
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Gasserian
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.Contents1 Structure 2 Clinical significance 3 Other animals3.1 Rodents4 Additional images 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] It is somewhat crescentic in shape, with its convexity directed forward: Medially, it is in relation with the internal carotid artery and the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. The motor root runs in front of and medial to the sensory root, and passes beneath the ganglion; it leaves the skull through the foramen ovale, and, immediately below this foramen, joins the mandibular nerve. The greater superficial petrosal nerve lies also underneath the ganglion. The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments from the carotid pl
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Nerve
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells
Schwann cells
that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium
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Anesthetic
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects
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Analgesia
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic
Analgesic
drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems
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Sympathetic Nerves
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. (The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.)[1][2] The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body's unconscious actions. The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response
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Sphenopalatine Ganglion
The pterygopalatine ganglion (Meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa. It is largely innervated by the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve); and its axons project to the lacrimal glands and nasal mucosa. The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous plexus of the conchae, is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose
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Nerve Root
A nerve root (Latin: radix nervi) is the initial segment of a nerve leaving the central nervous system. Types include:A cranial nerve root is the initial or proximal segment of one of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves leaving the central nervous system from the brain stem or the highest levels of the spinal cord. A spinal nerve root is the initial or proximal segment of one of the thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves leaving the central nervous system from the spinal cord
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Endocrine System
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that secrete those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive. In humans, the major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal glands. In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The field of study dealing with the endocrine system and its disorders is endocrinology, a branch of internal medicine.[1] Special
Special
features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and commonly the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones
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Thyroid
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is found at the front of the neck, below the Adam's apple. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which primarily influence the metabolic rate and protein synthesis. The hormones also have many other effects including those on development. The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are created from iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.[1] Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, which itself is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus.[2] The thyroid may be affected by several diseases
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Parathyroid Glands
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, variably located on the back of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin (one of the hormones made by the thyroid gland) have key roles in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones. Parathyroid glands share a similar blood supply, venous drainage, and lymphatic drainage to the thyroid glands. Parathyroid glands are derived from the epithelial lining of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, with the superior glands arising from the fourth pouch, and the inferior glands arising from the higher third pouch
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Surgical Incision
In surgery, a surgical incision is a cut made through the skin and soft tissue to facilitate an operation or procedure. Often, multiple incisions are possible for an operation. In general, a surgical incision is made as small and unobtrusive as possible to facilitate safe and timely operating conditions.Contents1 Anatomy1.1 Head and neck 1.2 Chest 1.3 Abdomen
Abdomen
and pelvis 1.4 Eye2 See also 3 ReferencesAnatomy[edit]Incisions of the neck, chest, and abdomen. Incisions of the neck, chest, and abdomen. Key as follows: A. Carotid incision B. Thyroidectomy
Thyroidectomy
incision C. Tracheotomy
Tracheotomy
incision D. Subclaviculor incision E. Sternotomy incision F. Infraareolar incision (either side) G. Inframamary incision (either side) H. Clamshell incision I. Kocher / subcostal incision J. Mercedes Benz incision K. Paramedian incision (either side) L. Chevron incision M
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Lingual Thyroid
Thyroid dysgenesis or thyroid agenesis is a cause of congenital hypothyroidism[1] where the thyroid is missing, ectopic, or severely underdeveloped. It should not be confused with iodine deficiency, or with other forms of congenital hypothyroidism, such as thyroid dyshormonogenesis, where the thyroid is present but not functioning correctly. Congenital hypothyroidism caused by thyroid dysgenesis can be associated with PAX8.[2] Ectopic thyroid[edit] An ectopic thyroid, also called accessory thyroid gland, is a form of thyroid dysgenesis in which an entire or parts of the thyroid located in another part of the body than what is the usual case. A completely ectopic thyroid gland may be located anywhere along the path of the descent of the thyroid during its embryological development, although it is most commonly located at the base of the tongue, just posterior to the foramen cecum of the tongue
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