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IBM Fellow
An IBM
IBM
FELLOW is an appointed position at IBM
IBM
made by IBM's CEO . Typically only four to nine (eleven in 2014) IBM
IBM
Fellows are appointed each year, in May or June. It is the highest honor a scientist, engineer, or programmer at IBM
IBM
can achieve. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 List of IBM
IBM
Fellows * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEW IBM
IBM
Fellow Donna Dillenberger The IBM
IBM
Fellows program was founded in 1962 by Thomas Watson Jr. , as a way to promote creativity among the company's "most exceptional" technical professionals. The first appointments were made in 1963. The criteria for appointment are stringent and take into account only the most-significant technical achievements
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Ibm
IBM
IBM
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York , United States
United States
, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware , middleware and software , and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology . IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business (as of 2017) for 24 consecutive years
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CEO
A CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive , leader or administrator in charge of managing an organization . CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations (e.g., Crown corporations ). The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues, or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. Titles also often given to the holder of CEO position include president , CHIEF EXECUTIVE (CE), and MANAGING DIRECTOR (MD), as well as REPRESENTATIVE DIRECTOR (RD) in Japan
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Thomas Watson Jr.
THOMAS JOHN WATSON JR. (January 14, 1914 – December 31, 1993) was an American businessman, political figure, and philanthropist. He was the 2nd president of IBM
IBM
(1952–1971), the 11th national president of the Boy Scouts of America
Boy Scouts of America
(1964–1968), and the 16th United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1979–1981). He received many honors during his lifetime, including being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
in 1964. Watson was called "the greatest capitalist in history" and one of "100 most influential people of the 20th century"
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IBM 650
The IBM
IBM
650 MAGNETIC DRUM DATA-PROCESSING MACHINE is one of IBM
IBM
's early computers , and the world’s first mass-produced computer. It was announced in 1953 and in 1956 enhanced as the IBM
IBM
650 RAMAC with the addition of up to four disk storage units. Almost 2,000 systems were produced, the last in 1962. Support for the 650 and its component units was withdrawn in 1969. The 650 was a two-address , bi-quinary coded decimal computer (both data and addresses were decimal), with memory on a rotating magnetic drum . Character support was provided by the input/output units converting punched card alphabetical and special character encodings to/from a two-digit decimal code . The 650 was marketed to business, scientific and engineering users as well as to users of punched card machines who were upgrading from calculating punches , such as the IBM 604 , to computers
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John Backus
JOHN WARNER BACKUS (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist . He directed the team that invented and implemented FORTRAN , the first widely used high-level programming language , and was the inventor of the Backus–Naur form (BNF), a widely used notation to define formal language syntax . He later did research into the function-level programming paradigm, presenting his findings in his influential 1977 Turing Award lecture "Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?" The IEEE awarded Backus the W. W. McDowell Award in 1967 for the development of FORTRAN. He received the National Medal of Science in 1975 and the 1977 ACM Turing Award “for profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages”
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Ralph E. Gomory
RALPH EDWARD GOMORY (born 7 May 1929) is an American applied mathematician and executive . Gomory worked at IBM
IBM
as a researcher and later as an executive. During that time, his research led to the creation of new areas of applied mathematics. After his career in the corporate world, Gomory became the president of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, where he oversaw programs dedicated to broadening public understanding in three key areas: the economic importance of science and research; the effects of globalization on the United States; and the role of technology in education. Gomory has written extensively on the nature of technology development, industrial competitiveness, models of international trade, and the function of the corporation in a globalizing world. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards and honors * 3 Publication * 4 See also * 5 Sources * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYGomory is the son of Andrew L
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Robert A. Henle
ROBERT A. HENLE (1924 – January 27, 1989) was an electrical engineer, who contributed to semiconductor technology. In 1949 he received the BSEE degree from the University of Minnesota . Henle joined the IBM
IBM
where he became involved in semiconductor circuits for computers. He was appointed an IBM
IBM
Fellow in 1964. He was elected Fellow of the IEEE
IEEE
, was elected into the National Academy of Engineering , and received the IEEE Edison Medal
IEEE Edison Medal
"For sustained leadership in, and individual contributions to, the science and technology of semiconductor circuits for computing systems." REFERENCES * ^ Lee, J. A. N. (2015), "Robert A
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Gene Amdahl
GENE MYRON AMDAHL (November 16, 1922 – November 10, 2015) was an American computer architect and high-tech entrepreneur, chiefly known for his work on mainframe computers at IBM
IBM
and later his own companies, especially Amdahl Corporation . He formulated Amdahl\'s law , which states a fundamental limitation of parallel computing . CONTENTS * 1 Childhood and education * 2 The IBM
IBM
and Amdahl years * 3 1979–2015: entrepreneur * 4 Awards * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CHILDHOOD AND EDUCATIONAmdahl was born to immigrant parents of Norwegian and Swedish descent in Flandreau, South Dakota . After serving in the Navy during World War II he completed a degree in engineering physics at South Dakota State University in 1948. He went on to study theoretical physics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison under Robert G. Sachs . However, in 1950, Amdahl and Charles H
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Reynold B. Johnson
REYNOLD B. JOHNSON (July 16, 1906 – September 15, 1998) was an American inventor and computer pioneer. A long-time employee of IBM
IBM
, Johnson is said to be the "father" of the disk drive . Other inventions include automatic test scoring equipment and the videocassette tape. BIOGRAPHYA native of Minnesota
Minnesota
, born to Swedish immigrants, Johnson graduated from Minnehaha Academy
Minnehaha Academy
(1925) and went on to graduate from the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
(BS in Educational Administration, 1929). In the early 1930s, Johnson, then a high school science teacher in Michigan
Michigan
, invented an electronic test scoring machine that sensed pencil marks on a standardized form based on the multiple choice test created by Columbia University professor Benjamin D. Wood
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Wallace Eckert
WALLACE JOHN ECKERT (June 19, 1902 – August 24, 1971) was an American astronomer , who directed the Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Astronomical Computing Bureau at Columbia University
Columbia University
which evolved into the research division of IBM
IBM
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Solution of differential equations for astronomy * 3 Naval service * 4 Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
* 5 Watson laboratory * 6 See also * 7 Further reading * 8 References * 9 External links LIFE Wallace John Eckert was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
on January 19, 1902. Shortly thereafter, his parents John and Anna Margaret (née Heil) Eckert moved to Erie County, PA where they raised their four sons on a farm in Albion, PA. Wallace graduated from Albion High School in a class of six boys and eight girls
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Leo Esaki
REONA ESAKI (江崎 玲於奈 Esaki Reona, born March 12, 1925), also known as LEO ESAKI, is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling . He is known for his invention of the Esaki diode , which exploited that phenomenon. This research was done when he was with Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo (now known as Sony
Sony
). He has also contributed in being a pioneer of the semiconductor superlattices . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Esaki\'s “five don’ts” rules * 2 Awards and honors * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYEsaki was born in Osaka
Osaka
and grew up in Kyoto
Kyoto
, near by Kyoto
Kyoto
Imperial University
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Richard L. Garwin
RICHARD LAWRENCE GARWIN (born April 19, 1928) is an American physicist , widely known to be the author of the first hydrogen bomb design. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Honors * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATIONGarwin received his bachelor\'s degree from the Case Institute of Technology in 1947, and two years later his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago under the supervision of Enrico Fermi at the age of 21. Another of Fermi's students, Marvin L. Goldberger , claims that Fermi said that "Garwin was the only true genius he had ever met". CAREERAfter graduating from the University of Chicago, Garwin joined the physics faculty there and spent summers as a consultant to Los Alamos National Laboratory working on nuclear weapons. Garwin was the author of the actual design used in the first hydrogen bomb (code-named Mike ) in 1952
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Nathaniel Rochester (computer Scientist)
NATHANIEL ROCHESTER (January 14, 1919 – June 8, 2001) designed the IBM 701 , wrote the first assembler and participated in the founding of the field of artificial intelligence . CONTENTS * 1 Early work * 2 IBM 701 computer * 3 Artificial intelligence * 4 Later work * 5 Recognition * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY WORKRochester received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1941. He stayed on at MIT
MIT
, working in the Radiation Laboratory for three years and then moved to Sylvania Electric Products
Sylvania Electric Products
where he was responsible for the design and construction of radar sets and other military equipment. His group built the arithmetic element for the Whirlwind I computer at MIT
MIT

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