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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e A HYPOTHESIS (plural HYPOTHESES) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon . For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory " are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory . A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research . A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic , to denote the antecedent of a proposition ; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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Consequent
A CONSEQUENT is the second half of a hypothetical proposition . In the standard form of such a proposition, it is the part that follows "then". In an implication , if P implies Q, then P is called the antecedent and Q is called the CONSEQUENT. In some contexts the consequent is called the APODOSIS. Examples: * If P {displaystyle P} , then Q {displaystyle Q} . Q {displaystyle Q} is the consequent of this hypothetical proposition. * If X {displaystyle X} is a mammal, then X {displaystyle X} is an animal.Here, " X {displaystyle X} is an animal" is the consequent. * If computers can think, then they are alive."They are alive" is the consequent. The consequent in a hypothetical proposition is not necessarily a consequence of the antecedent
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Logical Consequence
LOGICAL CONSEQUENCE (also ENTAILMENT) is a fundamental concept in logic , which describes the relationship between statements that holds true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements. A valid logical argument is one in which the conclusions are entailed by the premises , because the conclusions are consequences of the premises. The philosophical analysis of logical consequence involves the questions: In what sense does a conclusion follow from its premises? and What does it mean for a conclusion to be a consequence of premises? All of philosophical logic is meant to provide accounts of the nature of logical consequence and the nature of logical truth . Logical consequence is necessary and formal , by way of examples that explain with formal proof and models of interpretation . A sentence is said to be a logical consequence of a set of sentences, for a given language , if and only if , using only logic (i.e
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Philip Wadler
PHILIP LEE WADLER (born April 8, 1956) is an American computer scientist known for his contributions to programming language design and type theory . In particular, he has contributed to the theory behind functional programming and the use of monads in functional programming , the design of the purely functional language Haskell , and the XQuery declarative query language. In 1984, he created the Orwell programming language . Wadler was involved in adding generic types to Java 5.0. He is also author of the paper Theorems for free! that gave rise to much research on functional language optimization (see also Parametricity )
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Plot (narrative)
PLOT refers to the sequence of events inside a story which affect other events through the principle of cause and effect . The causal events of a plot can be thought of as a series of sentences linked by "and so". Plots can vary from simple structures such as in a traditional ballad to complex interwoven structures sometimes referred to as an imbroglio. The term plot can serve as a verb and refer to a character planning future actions in the story. In the narrative sense, the term highlights the important points which have important consequences within the story, according to Ansen Dibell. The term is similar in meaning to the term storyline
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Proposition
The term PROPOSITION has a broad use in contemporary philosophy . It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth -value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes " (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences . Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers of truth and falsity. This stipulation rules out certain candidates for propositions, including thought- and utterance-tokens which are not sharable, and concrete events or facts, which cannot be false
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Antecedent (logic)
An ANTECEDENT is the first half of a hypothetical proposition , whenever the if-clause precedes the then-clause. It is also known for a person's principles to a possible or hypothetical issue. In some contexts the antecedent is called the PROTASIS. Examples: * If P {displaystyle P} , then Q {displaystyle Q} .This is a nonlogical formulation of a hypothetical proposition. In this case, the antecedent is P, and the consequent is Q. In an implication , if {displaystyle phi } implies {displaystyle psi } then {displaystyle phi } is called the ANTECEDENT and {displaystyle psi } is called the consequent . * If X {displaystyle X} is a man, then X {displaystyle X} is mortal." X {displaystyle X} is a man" is the antecedent for this proposition. * If men have walked on the moon, then I am the king of France.Here, "men have walked on the moon" is the antecedent
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Phenomenon
A PHENOMENON (Greek :φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural PHENOMENA) is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences " for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant , who contrasted it with the noumenon . In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon can not be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms. Cloud chamber
Cloud chamber
phenomena
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Scientist
A SCIENTIST is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method . The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science . The term scientist was coined by the theologian, philosopher and historian of science William Whewell . This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature , including physical, mathematical and social realms. Philosophy
Philosophy
is today typically regarded as a distinct activity from science, though the activities were not always distinguished in this fashion, with science considered a "branch" of philosophy rather than opposed to it, prior to modernity
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Formal Logic
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: λογική, logikḗ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" (but coming to mean "thought" or "reason"), is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments . A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, the conclusion of such an argument may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes
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Theatre Of Ancient Greece
The ANCIENT GREEK DRAMA was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC. The city-state of Athens
Athens
, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its center, where it was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia , which honoured the god Dionysus . Tragedy (late 500 BC), comedy (490 BC), and the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens
Athens
exported the festival to its numerous colonies and allies in order to promote a common cultural identity
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Orbit
In physics , an ORBIT is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating path around a body, although it may occasionally be used for a non-recurring trajectory around a point in space. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits , with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler\'s laws of planetary motion . Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein 's general theory of relativity , which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime , with orbits following geodesics . For ease of calculation, in most situations, orbital motion is adequately approximated by Newtonian mechanics , which explains gravity as a force obeying an inverse square law
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Andreas Cellarius
ANDREAS CELLARIUS (c. 1596, Neuhausen , – 1665, Hoorn
Hoorn
) was a Dutch -German cartographer , best known for his Harmonia Macrocosmica of 1660, a major star atlas , published by Johannes Janssonius in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
. Andreas Cellarius, illustration of the Copernican system, from the Harmonia Macrocosmica (1660). He was born in Neuhausen (now a part of Worms ), and was educated in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
. The Protestant Cellarius may have left Heidelberg
Heidelberg
at the onset of the Thirty Years\' War in 1618 or in 1622 when the city came in Catholic hands. His activities are unclear at this time but based on his later works it is conjectured he spent time in Poland
Poland
and may have even worked as a military engineer there. In 1625 he married Catharina Elt(e)mans in Amsterdam, where he worked as school master of a Latin School
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Hypothetical (album)
HYPOTHETICAL is the fifth studio album by British progressive metal band Threshold . The album was released on 20 March 2001 (see 2001 in music ). This is the first album to feature current drummer Johanne James , who had previously played with the band on tour
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Galileo Galilei
GALILEO GALILEI (Italian: ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath : astronomer , physicist , engineer , philosopher , and mathematician . He played a major role in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus
Venus
, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter
Jupiter
(named the Galilean moons
Galilean moons
in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots . Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system
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