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Hydroxyapatite
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities. Hydroxylapatite
Hydroxylapatite
is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite group. The OH− ion can be replaced by fluoride, chloride or carbonate, producing fluorapatite or chlorapatite. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system. Pure hydroxylapatite powder is white. Naturally occurring apatites can, however, also have brown, yellow, or green colorations, comparable to the discolorations of dental fluorosis. Up to 50% by volume and 70% by weight of human bone is a modified form of hydroxylapatite, known as bone mineral.[4] Carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxylapatite is the main mineral of which dental enamel and dentin are composed
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Crystal
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.[1][2] In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal",[3] from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost".[4][5] Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid
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Pineal Gland
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone, hence its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join.[1][2] Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The most important exception is a primitive vertebrate, the hagfish
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Phosphate Mineral
Phosphate
Phosphate
minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43−) and vanadate (VO43−)
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Chlorine
Chlorine
Chlorine
is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine
Chlorine
is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity, behind only oxygen and fluorine. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. Around 1630, chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element
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Carbonate
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3),[2] characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2− 3. The name may also mean an ester of carbonic acid,[2] an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2. The term is also used as a verb, to describe carbonation: the process of raising the concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in water to produce carbonated water and other carbonated beverages – either by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure, or by dissolving carbonate or bicarbonate salts into the water. In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of chiefly carbonate minerals), and both are dominated by the carbonate ion, CO2− 3. Carbonate minerals
Carbonate minerals
are extremely varied and ubiquitous in chemically precipitated sedimentary rock
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Fluorapatite
Fluorapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a phosphate mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F (calcium fluorophosphate). Fluorapatite
Fluorapatite
is a hard crystalline solid. Although samples can have various color (green, brown, blue, yellow, violet, or colorless), the pure mineral is colorless as expected for a material lacking transition metals. Along with hydroxylapatite, it can be a component of tooth enamel.[4] Fluorapatite
Fluorapatite
crystallizes in a hexagonal crystal system. It is often combined as a solid solution with hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH or Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in biological matrices. Chlorapatite
Chlorapatite
(Ca5(PO4)3Cl) is another related structure.[4] Industrially, the mineral is an important source of both phosphoric and hydrofluoric acids. Fluorapatite
Fluorapatite
as a mineral is the most common phosphate mineral
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Bone Mineral
Bone
Bone
mineral (also called inorganic bone phase, bone salt, or bone apatite) is the inorganic component of bone tissue. It gives bones their compressive strength. Bone
Bone
mineral is formed from carbonated hydroxyapatite[1][2] with lower crystallinity.[3][4] Bone
Bone
mineral is formed from globular and plate structures[4][5] distributed among the collagen fibrils of bone and forming yet a larger structure. The bone salt and collagen fibers together constitute the extracellular matrix of bone tissue. Often the plural form "bone salts" is used; it reflects the notion of various salts that, on the level of molecular metabolism, can go into the formation of the hydroxyapatite. Bone
Bone
mineral is dynamic in living animals; it is continually being resorbed and built anew in the bone remodeling process
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Dentin
Dentin
Dentin
(/ˈdɛntɪn/) (American English) or dentine (/ˈdɛnˌtiːn/ or /ˌdɛnˈtiːn/) (British English) (Latin: substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth. It is usually covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp. By volume, 45% of dentin consists of the mineral hydroxylapatite, 33% is organic material, and 22% is water.[1] Yellow in appearance, it greatly affects the color of a tooth due to the translucency of enamel. Dentin, which is less mineralized and less brittle than enamel, is necessary for the support of enamel.[2] Dentin rates approximately 3 on the Mohs scale
Mohs scale
of mineral hardness.[3] There are two main characteristics which distinguish dentine from enamel; firstly dentine forms throughout life, and secondly, dentine is sensitive
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Corpora Arenacea
Corpora arenacea (or brain sand or acervuli[1][2] or corpus arenaceum[3]) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus. Older organisms have numerous corpora arenacea, whose function, if any, is unknown. Concentrations of "brain sand" increase with age, so the pineal gland becomes increasingly visible on X-rays
X-rays
over time, usually by the third or fourth decade. They are sometimes used as anatomical landmarks in radiological examinations.[4] Chemical analysis shows that they are composed of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium phosphate, and ammonium phosphate.[5] Recently, calcite deposits have been described as well.[6] References[edit]^ Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, MJ; Vígh-Teichmann, I (1998). "Comparative histology of pineal calcification". Histology and Histopathology
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Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,[1] usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. As of March 2018[update], there are more than 5,500 known mineral species;[2] 5,312 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).[3] Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals
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Calcium Nitrate
Calcium
Calcium
nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter), is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO3)2. This colourless salt absorbs moisture from the air and is commonly found as a tetrahydrate. It is mainly used as a component in fertilizers but has other applications. Nitrocalcite is the name for a mineral which is a hydrated calcium nitrate that forms as an efflorescence where manure contacts concrete or limestone in a dry environment as in stables or caverns
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Diammonium Phosphate
Diammonium phosphate
Diammonium phosphate
(DAP) (chemical formula (NH4)2HPO4, IUPAC
IUPAC
name diammonium hydrogen phosphate) is one of a series of water-soluble ammonium phosphate salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid. Solid diammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia as given by the following expression and equation:[2](NH4)2HPO4(s) ⇌ NH3(g) + NH4H2PO4(s)log PmmHg = −3063 / T + 175 log T + 3.3where:P = the resultant dissociation pressure of ammonia T = absolute temperature (K)At 100 °C, the dissociation pressure of diammonium phosphate is approximately 5 mmHg.[3] Accordingly, to MSDS of DiammoniumPhosphate from CF Industries inc. decomposition starts as low as 70*C "Hazardous Decomposition Products: Gradually loses ammonia when exposed to air at room temperature. Decomposes to ammonia and monoammonium phosphate at around 70°C (158°F)
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Prosthesis
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment"[1]) is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions. Prosthetics are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part.[2] Prosthetic amputee rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a prosthetist and an inter-disciplinary team of health care professionals including psychiatrists, surgeons, physical therapists, and occupational therapists
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