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Hydroelectric Plant
HYDROELECTRICITY is electricity produced from hydropower . In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity , and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower
Hydropower
is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China
China
is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh
TWh
of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour
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Bernard Forest De Bélidor
BERNARD FOREST DE BéLIDOR (1698, Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
– 8 September 1761, Paris
Paris
, France
France
) was a French engineer , significant to the development of the science of hydraulics and ballistics . Portrait of B. Forest de Belidor (1698-1761) (Louis-Gabriel Blanchet , 1752) He was the son of Jean Baptiste Foret de Belidor, an officer of dragoons, and his wife, Marie Héber but was orphaned at five months old and brought up by the family of his godfather, an artillery officer named de Fossiébourg. Bélidor enlisted in the army at a young age. After leaving the army, he developed an interest in science and engineering, and became professor of artillery at the school of Fère-en-Tardenois
Fère-en-Tardenois
in Aisne
Aisne
. For a while he worked on measuring the arc of the earth
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Serbia
Coordinates : 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21 Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian ) Republika Srbija (Serbian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Боже правде / Bože pravde
Bože pravde
God of Justice Location of Serbia
Serbia
(green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe
Europe
(dark grey)
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Electrical Generator
In electricity generation , a GENERATOR is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit . Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines , gas turbines , water turbines , internal combustion engines and even hand cranks . The first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was built in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids . The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor , and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable manual generators
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Industrial Revolution
The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines , new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power , the increasing use of steam power , the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system . Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain
Great Britain
and most of the important technological innovations were British. Laws also shaped the revolution, such as courts ruling in favor of property rights
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Cragside
CRAGSIDE is a country house near the town of Rothbury
Rothbury
in Northumberland
Northumberland
, England
England
. It was the first house in the world to be lit using hydroelectric power. Built into a rocky hillside above a forest garden of just under 1,000 acres , it was the country home of armaments manufacturer, Lord Armstrong , and has been in the care of the National Trust since 1977. The property was opened to the public in 1979. Cragside, named after Cragend Hill above the house, was built in 1863 as a modest two-storey country lodge, but was subsequently extended to designs by Richard Norman Shaw
Richard Norman Shaw
, transforming it into an elaborate mansion in the Free Tudor style. At one point, the building included an astronomical observatory and a scientific laboratory
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Fossil Fuel
A FOSSIL FUEL is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms , containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil
Fossil
fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum , coal , and natural gas . Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane . Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane , to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane
Methane
can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil , or in the form of methane clathrates
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Greenhouse Gas
A GREENHOUSE GAS (abbrev. GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect . The primary greenhouse gases in Earth\'s atmosphere are water vapor , carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide , and ozone . Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth\'s surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). In the Solar System
Solar System
, the atmospheres of Venus , Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause a greenhouse effect. Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750) have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide , from 280 ppm in 1750 to 406 ppm in early 2017. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China
China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
) and the Special Administrative Regions
Special Administrative Regions
Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan
Taiwan

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Megawatt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) defined as 1 joule per second and can be used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . Power has dimensions of M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio
Radio
transmission * 6 Difference between watts, watt-hours and watts per hour * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one newton the rate at which work is done is 1 watt
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Penny (United States Coin)
The UNITED STATES ONE-CENT COIN, often called PENNY, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar
United States dollar
. The cent's symbol is ¢. Its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 (the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth) to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010. The coin is 0.75 inches (19.05 mm) in diameter and 0.0598 inches (1.52 mm) in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production (see further below). The U.S. Mint 's official name for the coin is "cent" and the U.S. Treasury\'s official name is "one cent piece"
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Kilowatt-hour
The KILOWATT HOUR (symbol KWH, KW⋅H or KW H ) is a derived unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules . If the energy is being transmitted or used at a constant rate (power) over a period of time, the total energy in kilowatt hours is the power in kilowatts multiplied by the time in hours. The kilowatt hour is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Examples * 3 Symbol and abbreviations for kilowatt hour * 4 Conversions * 5 Watt hour multiples and billing units * 6 Confusion of kilowatt hours (energy) and kilowatts (power) * 7 Misuse of watts per hour * 8 Other energy-related units * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links DEFINITIONThe kilowatt hour (symbolized kW⋅h as per SI ) is a composite unit of energy equivalent to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power sustained for one hour
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Northumberland
NORTHUMBERLAND (/nɔːrˈθʌmbərlənd/ locally /nɔːˈθʊmbələnd/ ) (abbreviated NORTHD) is a county in North East England
England
. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham
County Durham
and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
to the north. To the east is the North Sea
North Sea
coastline with a 64-mile (103 km) long distance path. The county town is Alnwick
Alnwick
, although the county council is in Morpeth . The county of Northumberland
Northumberland
included Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
until 1400, when the city became a county of itself
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William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong
WILLIAM GEORGE ARMSTRONG, 1ST BARON ARMSTRONG CB FRS (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth
manufacturing concern on Tyneside
Tyneside
. He was also an eminent scientist, inventor and philanthropist. In collaboration with the architect Richard Norman Shaw
Richard Norman Shaw
, he built Cragside in Northumberland, the first house in the world to be lit by hydroelectricity. He is regarded as the inventor of modern artillery. Armstrong was knighted in 1859 after giving his gun patents to the government. In 1887, in Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
's golden jubilee year, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Armstrong of Cragside, becoming the first engineer – and, indeed, the first scientist – to join the House of Lords
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