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Huto And Kamarband Caves
The Huto and Kamarband Caves
Huto and Kamarband Caves
or Belt Caves are prehistoric, archaeological sites in Iran. They are located 100 m (330 ft) apart, in a cliff on the slopes of the Alborz
Alborz
mountains in the village of Tarujen (currently called Shahid Abad), 5 km (3.1 mi) south west of Behshahr. Excavations took place led by Carleton S. Coon
Carleton S. Coon
and were reported on between 1949 and 1957. Huto Cave
Cave
has an approximate size of 30 m × 20 m (98.4 ft × 65.6 ft). The site produced pottery shards, stone tools and material that could be radio-carbon dated. Twenty-two samples were dated and attributed to eight different cultures. The 2 earliest cultures, present at around 9,910 to 7,240 years BCE are assumed to be seal hunters and vole eaters
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Tabaristan
Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(from Middle Persian: , Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan
Tabaristan
from the Arab
Arab
conquests to the Seljuk period.Contents1 Early history 2 Medieval era 3 Modern era 4 References 5 SourcesEarly history[edit] See also: Caspians The Amardians are believed to have been the earliest inhabitants of the region where modern day Mazanderan and Gilan
Gilan
are located. The establishment of the early great kingdom dates back to about the first millennium BCE when the Hyrcanian kingdom was founded with Sadracarta (somewhere near modern Sari) as its capital. Its extent was so large that for centuries the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
was called the Hyrcanian Ocean
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Flint
Flint
Flint
is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz,[1][2] categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones.[3][4] Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone
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Prehistoric
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but writing was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even later. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently. Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisation
and ancient Egypt were the first civilisations to develop their own scripts, and to keep historical records; this took place already during the early Bronze Age. Neighbouring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron
Iron
Age
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Alborz
The Alborz
Alborz
( listen (help·info) Persian: البرز‎), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran
Iran
that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western, Central, and Eastern Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. The Western Alborz
Alborz
Range (usually called the Talysh) runs south-southeastward almost along the western coast of the Caspian Sea
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Carleton S. Coon
Carleton Stevens Coon (June 23, 1904 – June 3, 1981) was an American physical anthropologist, Professor of Anthropology
Anthropology
at the University of Pennsylvania, lecturer and professor at Harvard University, and president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Racial theories2.1 Study of the Caucasoid race 2.2 Mediterranean race 2.3 Racial origins 2.4 Races in the Indian Sub-Continent3 Reception3.1 Contemporary3.1.1 Positive 3.1.2 Negative3.2 Posthumous4 Works 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 Further reading6 External linksBiography[edit] Carleton Coon was born in Wakefield, Massachusetts, to a Cornish American family.[2] He developed an interest in prehistory, and attended Phillips Academy, Andover
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Radio-carbon Dating
Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
(also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14C), a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed by Willard Libby
Willard Libby
in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists. Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire 14C by eating the plants
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Ice Age
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods" (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations" or colloquially as "ice age"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials". In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres.[1] By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene—of the ice age
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Afrasiyab Dynasty
The Afrasiyab or Chalavi dynasty was a small Iranian Shia dynasty of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and flourished in the late medieval, pre-Safavid period; it is also called the Kia dynasty. It was founded by Kiya Afrasiyab, who conquered the Bavand kingdom in 1349 and made himself king of the region. In 1504, Ismail I
Ismail I
invaded Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and ended Afrasiyab rule of the region.Contents1 History 2 References 3 SourcesHistory[edit] Kiya Afrasiyab
Kiya Afrasiyab
was the son of certain Hasan Chulabi, who belonged to the Chulabids, a prominent family of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
which served the Bavandids. Afrasiyab was the sipahsalar and the brother-in-law of the Bavandid ruler Hasan II (r
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Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup
Haplogroup
J-M304, also known as J*,[Phylogenetics 1] is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
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Haplogroup J-M172
In human genetics, Haplogroup
Haplogroup
J-M172 or J2[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] Haplogroup
Haplogroup
J-M172 is common in modern populations in Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Europe
Europe
and North Africa
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Cave Painting
Cave
Cave
paintings are also known as "parietal art". They are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, dated to some 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
cave paintings is not known. Evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are also often located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, while other theories ascribe a religious or ceremonial purpose to them. The paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images
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Armenia
Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Armenia
Armenia
(/ɑːrˈmiːniə/ ( listen);[20] Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
region of Eurasia
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Off
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