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Hunstanton Formation
The Hunstanton
Hunstanton
Formation is a lithostratigraphic name applied to an early Cretaceous
Cretaceous
limestone succession in eastern England
England
which was formerly known as the Red Chalk. The type section is at Hunstanton Cliff in northwest Norfolk.[1] References[edit]^ Hopson et al 2008. A Stratigraphical Framework for the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
of England, British Geological Survey Research Report RR/08/03This article about a specific stratigraphic formation in the United Kingdom is a stub
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Geochronology
Geochronology
Geochronology
is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted
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Albian
The Albian
Albian
is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma (million years ago)
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Cenomanian
The Cenomanian
Cenomanian
is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series.[2] An age is a unit of geochronology: it is a unit of time; the stage is a unit in the stratigraphic column deposited during the corresponding age. Both age and stage bear the same name. As a unit of geologic time measure, the Cenomanian
Cenomanian
age spans the time between[3] 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma and 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma (million years ago). In the geologic timescale it is preceded by the Albian
Albian
and is followed by the Turonian
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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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Formation (stratigraphy)
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy. A formation consists of a certain amount of rock strata that have a comparable lithology, facies or other similar properties. Formations are not defined by the thickness of their rock strata; therefore the thickness of different formations can vary widely. The concept of formally defined layers or strata is central to the geologic discipline of stratigraphy. Groups of strata are divided into formations, which are divided into members.Contents1 Usefulness of formations 2 Defining lithostratigraphic formations 3 Other uses of the term 4 See also 5 Further readingUsefulness of formations[edit] The definition and recognition of formations allow geologists to correlate geologic strata across wide distances between outcrops and exposures of rock strata. Formations were at first described as the essential geologic time markers, based on their relative ages and the law of superposition
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Erosion Surface
In geology and geomorphology, an erosion surface is a surface of rock or regolith that was formed by erosion[1] and not by construction (e.g. lava flows, sediment deposition[1]) nor fault displacement. Erosional surfaces within the stratigraphic record are known as unconformities, but not all unconformities are buried erosion surfaces. Erosion
Erosion
surfaces can be either small or large. Particularly large and flat erosion surfaces receive the names of peneplain, paleoplain, planation surface or pediplain. References[edit]^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna. "erosionsyta". Nationalencyclopedin (in Swedish). Cydonia Development. Retrieved June 22, 2015. This geomorphology article is a stub
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Chalk
Chalk
Chalk
( /ˈtʃɔːk/) is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite
Calcite
is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint
Flint
(a type of chert) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction
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Marl
Marl
Marl
or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt. The dominant carbonate mineral in most marls is calcite, but other carbonate minerals such as aragonite, dolomite, and siderite may be present. Marl
Marl
was originally an old term loosely applied to a variety of materials, most of which occur as loose, earthy deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay and calcium carbonate, formed under freshwater conditions; specifically an earthy substance containing 35–65% clay and 65–35% carbonate.[1] It also describes a habit of coralline red alga.[2] The term is today often used to describe indurated marine deposits and lacustrine (lake) sediments which more accurately should be named 'marlstone'
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Lithostratigraphy
Lithostratigraphy
Lithostratigraphy
is a sub-discipline of stratigraphy, the geological science associated with the study of strata or rock layers. Major focuses include geochronology, comparative geology, and petrology. In general a stratum will be primarily igneous or sedimentary relating to how the rock was formed. Sedimentary
Sedimentary
layers are laid down by deposition of sediment associated with weathering processes, decaying organic matters (biogenic) or through chemical precipitation. These layers are distinguishable as having many fossils and are important for the study of biostratigraphy. Igneous
Igneous
layers are either plutonic or volcanic in character depending upon the cooling rate of the rock
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Norfolk
Norfolk
Norfolk
(/ˈnɔːrfək/) is a county in East Anglia
East Anglia
in England. It borders Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to the northwest, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
to the west and southwest, and Suffolk
Suffolk
to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea
North Sea
and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 km2) and a population of 859,400, Norfolk
Norfolk
is a largely rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile (155 per km²)
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Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Hunstanton
Hunstanton
Hunstanton
(locally /ˈhʌnstən/ ( listen) HUN-stən) is a seaside town in Norfolk, England
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