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Human Sex Ratio
In anthropology and demography , the HUMAN SEX RATIO is the ratio of males to females in a population . More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult. Like most sexual species, the sex ratio in humans is approximately 1:1. Due to higher female fetal mortality, the sex ratio at birth worldwide is commonly thought to be 107 boys to 100 girls , although this value is subject to debate in the scientific community. The sex ratio for the entire world population is 101 males to 100 females. Depending upon which definition is used, between 0.1% and 1.7% of live births are intersex . Gender imbalance may arise as a consequence of various factors including natural factors, exposure to pesticides and environmental contaminants, war casualties, gender-selective abortions and infanticides, aging, and deliberate gendercide
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Significant Figures
The SIGNIFICANT FIGURES of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution . This includes all digits except: * All leading zeros ; * Trailing zeros when they are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number (exact rules are explained at identifying significant figures ); and * Spurious digits introduced, for example, by calculations carried out to greater precision than that of the original data, or measurements reported to a greater precision than the equipment supports. Significance arithmetic are approximate rules for roughly maintaining significance throughout a computation. The more sophisticated scientific rules are known as propagation of uncertainty
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Anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies . Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans
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Demography
DEMOGRAPHY (from prefix _demo-_ from Ancient Greek δῆμος _dēmos_ meaning "the people", and _-graphy_ from γράφω _graphō_, implies "writing, description or measurement" ) is the statistical study of populations , especially human beings . As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics ). Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth , migration , ageing , and death . Based on the demographic research of the earth, earth's population up to the year 2050 and 2100 can be estimated by demographers. Demographics are quantifiable characteristics of a given population
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Ratio
In mathematics, a RATIO is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second. For example, if a bowl of fruit contains eight oranges and six lemons, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8:6, which is equivalent to the ratio 4:3). Similarly, the ratio of lemons to oranges is 6:8 (or 3:4) and the ratio of oranges to the total amount of fruit is 8:14 (or 4:7). The numbers in a ratio may be quantities of any kind, such as quantities of persons, objects, lengths, weights, etc. A ratio may be either a whole number or a fraction . A ratio may be written as "_a_ to _b_" or _a_:_b_, or it may be expressed as a quotient of "_a_ and _b_". When the two quantities are measured with the same unit, as is often the case, their ratio is a dimensionless number
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Male
A MALE ( ) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm . Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum , in the process of fertilization . A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals , including male humans, have a Y chromosome , which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs . Not all species share a common sex-determination system . In most animals , including humans , sex is determined genetically , but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, _ Cymothoa exigua _ changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity
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Female
FEMALE (♀) is the sex of an organism , or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals , including female humans , have two X chromosomes . CONTENTS * 1 Defining characteristics * 2 Etymology and usage * 3 Mammalian female * 4 Symbol * 5 Sex
Sex
determination * 5.1 Genetic determination * 5.2 Environmental determination * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 References DEFINING CHARACTERISTICSThe ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system , while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon , is produced by the male . A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male, or vice versa (an exception is parthenogenesis ). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually
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Population
A POPULATION is all the organisms of the same group or species , which live in a particular geographical area , and have the capability of interbreeding. The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology , population refers to a collection of humans . Demography
Demography
is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations
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Boy
A BOY is a young male human , usually a child or adolescent . When he becomes an adult, he is described as a man . The most apparent difference between a typical boy and a typical girl is the genitalia . However, some intersex children with ambiguous genitals, and genetically female transgender children, may also be classified or self-identify as a boy. The term _boy_ is primarily used to indicate biological sex distinctions, cultural gender role distinctions or both
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Girl
A GIRL is a female human from birth through childhood and adolescence to attainment of adulthood when she becomes a woman . The term _girl_ may also be used to mean a _young woman_, and is often used as a synonym for _daughter_
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World Population
In demographics , the WORLD POPULATION is the total number of humans currently living. The world population was estimated to have reached 7.5 billion in April, 2017. The United Nations
United Nations
estimates it will further increase to 11.2 billion in the year 2100. World population
World population
has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine of 1315–17and the Black Death
Black Death
in 1350, when it was near 370 million. The highest population growth rates – global population increases above 1.8% per year – occurred between 1955-1975 peaking to 2.06% between 1965-1970. The growth rate has declined to 1.18% between 2010-2015 and is projected to decline to 0.13% by the year 2100
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Intersex
INTERSEX people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes , gonads , sex hormones , or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
Rights
, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies". Such variations may involve genital ambiguity, and combinations of chromosomal genotype and sexual phenotype other than XY-male and XX-female . Intersex
Intersex
people were previously referred to as hermaphrodites , "congenital eunuchs", or even congenitally "frigid". Such terms have fallen out of favor; in particular, the term "hermaphrodite" is considered to be misleading, stigmatizing, and scientifically specious. Medical description of intersex traits as disorders of sex development has been controversial since the label was introduced in 2006
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Gendercide
Note: Varies by jurisdiction * Assassination * Cannibalism
Cannibalism
* Child murder * Consensual homicide *
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Life Expectancy
LIFE EXPECTANCY is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth , their current age and other demographic factors including sex . The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. _Cohort_ LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort (all individuals born a given year) and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. _Period_ LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death , to the mortality rates observed at a given year. National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of _period_ LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age , LEB was 26 years; the 2010 world LEB was 67.2 years
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Demographics Of Germany
The DEMOGRAPHY OF GERMANY is monitored by the Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office of Germany
Germany
). According to the first census since the reunification , Germany's population was counted to be 80,219,695 on May 9, 2011, making it the 16th most populous country in the world. Although having since the 1970s achieved a fertility rate below the replacement level, Germany
Germany
has so far been unable to address its overpopulation problem, that makes it impossible to feed its population sustainably from own arable land while preserving nature. The total fertility rate has been rated around 1.4 in 2010 (the highest value since 1990 ) and has in 2011 even been estimated at 1.6 after accounting for the fact that older women contribute more to the number of births than in previous statistic models, and total fertility rates increased in younger generations
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Demographics Of The United States
As of July 1, 2017, the United States
United States
has a total resident population of 325,350,377 making it the third most populous country in the world. It is very urbanized, with 81% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2014 (the worldwide urban rate is 54%). California
California
and Texas
Texas
are the most populous states, as the mean center of U.S. population has consistently shifted westward and southward. New York City
New York City
is the most populous city in the United States
United States
. The total fertility rate in the United States
United States
estimated for 2016 is 1.82 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. Compared to other Western countries, in 2012, U.S
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