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Human Sex Ratio
In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult. Like most sexual species, the sex ratio in humans is approximately 1:1. Due to higher female fetal mortality,[2] the sex ratio at birth worldwide is commonly thought to be 107 boys to 100 girls,[3] although this value is subject to debate in the scientific community
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Significant Figures
The significant figures of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution. This includes all digits except:[1]All leading zeros; Trailing zeros when they are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number (exact rules are explained at identifying significant figures); and Spurious digits introduced, for example, by calculations carried out to greater precision than that of the original data, or measurements reported to a greater precision than the equipment supports. Significance arithmetic are approximate rules for roughly maintaining significance throughout a computation
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Infanticide
Note: Varies by jurisdictionAssassination Cannibalism Child murder Consensual homicide Contract killing Crime of passion Depraved-heart murder Execution-style murder Felony murder rule Feticide Honor killing Human sacrifice InfanticideChild sacrificeInternet homicide Lonely hearts killer Lust murder Lynching Mass murder Mass shooting Misdemeanor murder Murder–suicide Poisoning Proxy murder Pseudocommando Serial killer Spree killer Thrill killing Torture murder Vehicle-ramming attackManslaughterIn English law Voluntary manslaughter Negligent homicide Vehicular homicideNon-criminal homicideNote: Varies by jurisdictionAssisted suicide Capital punishment Euthanasia Feticide Justifiable homicide WarBy victim or victimsSuicideFamily Avunculicide (Nepoticide) Familicide M
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Endocrine Disruptor
Endocrine
Endocrine
disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders.[1] Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors
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Polychlorinated Biphenyl
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids.[1] Because of their longevity, PCBs are still widely in use, even though their manufacture has declined drastically since the 1960s, when a host of problems were identified.[2] Because of PCBs' environmental toxicity and classification as a persistent organic pollutant, PCB production was banned by United States federal law in 1978 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.[3] The International Agency for Research on Cancer
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), rendered PCBs as definite carcinogens in humans. According to the U.S
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DDT
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal action was discovered by the Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller
Paul Hermann Müller
in 1939. DDT
DDT
was used in the second half of World War II
World War II
to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT
DDT
as a contact poison against several arthropods" in 1948.[5] By October 1945, DDT
DDT
was available for public sale in the United States
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Xenoestrogens
Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen. They can be either synthetic or natural chemical compounds. Synthetic xenoestrogens are widely used industrial compounds, such as PCBs, BPA, and phthalates, which have estrogenic effects on a living organism even though they differ chemically from the estrogenic substances produced internally by the endocrine system of any organism. Natural xenoestrogens include phytoestrogens which are plant-derived xenoestrogens. Because the primary route of exposure to these compounds is by consumption of phytoestrogenic plants, they are sometimes called "dietary estrogens"
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Vertebrate
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Sperm
Sperm
Sperm
is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm
Sperm
cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote. The human sperm cell is haploid, so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to form a diploid cell
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Pollution
Pollution
Pollution
is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution
Pollution
can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution
Pollution
is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution
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Dioxin
Dioxin may refer to:Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, a diverse range of chemical compounds which are known to exhibit “dioxin-like” toxicity 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
(TCDD), the prototypical example of the above class, often referred to simply as "dioxin"In chemistry, a dioxin is a heterocyclic 6-membered ring, where two carbon atoms have been replaced b
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Georgia (country)
Coordinates: 42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E / 42.000; 43.500Georgia საქართველო (Georgian) SakartveloFlagCoat of armsMotto:  ძალა ერთობაშია Dzala Ertobashia (English: "Strength is in Unity")Anthem:  თავისუფლება Tavisupleba (English: "Freedom")Areas under the control of the government in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
shown in dark green; areas outside of that control shown in light greenCapital Tbilisi 41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E
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Anthropology
Anthropology
Anthropology
is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.[1][2][3] Social anthropology
Social anthropology
and cultural anthropology[1][2][3] study the norms and values of societies.
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Armenia
Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Armenia
Armenia
(/ɑːrˈmiːniə/ ( listen);[20] Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
region of Eurasia
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Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːn/ AZ-ər-by-JAHN; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn ɾespublikɑˈsɯ]), is a country in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
region of Eurasia
Eurasia
at the crossroads of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[7] It is bound by the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia
Armenia
to the west and Iran
Iran
to the south
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