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Human Science
Human
Human
science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.[1] Human
Human
Sciences aims to expand our understanding of the human world through a broad interdisciplinary approach. It encompasses a wide range of fields - including history, philosophy, genetics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, biochemistry, neurosciences and anthropology. [2] It is the study and interpretation of the experiences, activities, constructs, and artifacts associated with human beings. The study of the human sciences attempts to expand and enlighten the human being's knowledge of their existence, its interrelationship with other species and systems, and the development of artifacts to perpetuate the human expression and thought. It is the study of human phenomena. The study of the human experience is historical and current in nature
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Science Of Morality
The science of morality may refer to various forms of ethical naturalism grounding morality in rational, empirical consideration of the natural world.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 History2.1 In philosophy 2.2 In popular literature3 Views in scientific Morality3.1 Training to promote good behaviour3.1.1 The role of government 3.1.2 The role of punishment3.2 Research 3.3 Other implications4 Criticisms 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingOverview[edit] Moral science may refer to the consideration of what is best for, and how to maximize the flourishing of, either particular individuals[2] or all conscious creatures.[3][4] It has been proposed that "morality" can be appropriately defined on the basis of fundamental premises necessary for any empirical, secular, and philosophical discussion and that societies can use the methods of science to provide answers to moral questions.[5]In sum, from the perspective of neu
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Theological
Theology
Theology
is the critical study of the nature of the divine
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Biological
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological,[1] or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living cells or tissues. They (or their precursors or components) are isolated from living sources—human, animal, plant, fungal, or microbial. Terminology surrounding biopharmaceuticals varies between groups and entities, with different terms referring to different subsets of therapeutics within the general biopharmaceutical category
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Formal Science
Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.[citation needed] Whereas the natural sciences and social sciences seek to characterize physical systems and social systems, respectively, using empirical methods, the formal sciences are language tools concerned with characterizing abstract structures described by sign systems
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Edmund Husserl
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl
Husserl
(/ˈhʊsərl/;[14] German: [ˈhʊsɐl]; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938)[15] was a German[16][17] philosopher who established the school of phenomenology. In his early work, he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic based on analyses of intentionality. In his mature work, he sought to develop a systematic foundational science based on the so-called phenomenological reduction. Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl
Husserl
re-defined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy
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Empirical
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.[1] The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (empeiría). After Immanuel Kant, in philosophy, it is common to call the knowledge gained a posteriori knowledge (in contrast to a priori knowledge).Contents1 Meaning 2 See also 3 Footnotes 4 References 5 External linksMeaning[edit] Empirical evidence is information that verifies the truth ( which accurately corresponds to reality) or falsity (inaccuracy) of a claim. In the empiricist view, one can claim to have knowledge only when based on empirical evidence (although some empiricists believe that there are other ways of gaining knowledge)
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Observation
Observation
Observation
is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity
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Teleological
Teleology
Teleology
or finality[1][2] is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose or goal.[3] It is derived from two Greek words: telos (end, goal, purpose) and logos (reason, explanation). A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic.[4] Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial today,[5] contends that natural entities also have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle
Aristotle
claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak tree.[6] Though ancient atomists rejected the notion of natural teleology, teleological accounts of non-personal or non-human nature were explored and often endorsed in ancient and medieval philosophies, but fell into disfavor during the modern era (1600–1900)
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Adam Smith
Part of a series onLiberalism History Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists
List of liberal theorists
(contributions to liberal theory)Ideas Civil and political rights Cultural liberalism Democracy Democratic capitalism Economic freedom Economic liberalism Egalitarianism Free market Free trade Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Gender equality Harm principle Internationalism Laissez-faire Liberty Market economy Natural and legal rights Negative/positive liberty Non-aggression Principle Open society Permissive society Privat
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Natural Sciences
Natural science
Natural science
is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, space science, chemistry, and Earth science
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Natural Science
Natural science
Natural science
is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science. These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields)
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Droysen
Johann Gustav Droysen
Johann Gustav Droysen
(German: [ˈdʀɔʏzən]; 6 July 1808 – 19 June 1884) was a German historian. His history of Alexander the Great was the first work representing a new school of German historical thought that idealized power held by so-called "great" men.Contents1 Early life and education 2 History meets politics 3 Support of Prussian hegemony 4 Legacy to Prussian historiography 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Droysen was born at Treptow in Pomerania (now Trzebiatów
Trzebiatów
in Poland) on 6 July 1808. His father, Johann Christoph Droysen, was an army chaplain who had been present at the celebrated siege of Kolberg in 1806–1807
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Windelband
Wilhelm Windelband
Wilhelm Windelband
(/ˈvɪndəlˌbɑːnd/; German: [ˈvɪndəlbant]; 11 May 1848 – 22 October 1915) was a German philosopher of the Baden School.His grave in HeidelbergLife[edit] Windelband was born the son of a Prussian official in Potsdam. He studied at Jena, Berlin, and Göttingen. Philosophy[edit] Windelband is now mainly remembered for the terms nomothetic and idiographic, which he introduced. These have currency in psychology and other areas, though not necessarily in line with his original meanings. Windelband was a neo-Kantian who protested other neo-Kantians of his time and maintained that "to understand Kant rightly means to go beyond him". Against his positivist contemporaries, Windelband argued that philosophy should engage in humanistic dialogue with the natural sciences rather than uncritically appropriating its methodologies
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Nomothetic
Nomothetic literally means "proposition of the law" (Greek derivation) and is used in philosophy (see also Nomothetic and idiographic), psychology, and law with differing meanings
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