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Human Factors And Ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
(commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest. [1] The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities
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Human Factors (journal)
Human Factors is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes scientific studies in ergonomics. The editor-in-chief is Patricia A. DeLucia (Texas Tech University). It was established in 1958 and is published by Sage Publications
Sage Publications
in association with the Human Factors and Ergonomics
Ergonomics
Society. Abstracting and indexing[edit] The journal is abstracted and indexed in Scopus and the Social Sciences Citation Index. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2013 impact factor of 1.290.[1] References[edit]^ "Human Factors". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters
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Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology
Clinical psychology
is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.[1][2] Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[3] In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The field is generally considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University
University
of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment
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Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Some evolutionary psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the modularity of mind is similar to that of the body and with different modular adaptations serving different functions
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Experimental Psychology
Experimental psychology
Experimental psychology
refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it
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Mathematical Psychology
Mathematical psychology
Mathematical psychology
is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior
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Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.[1] It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders. Whereas classical neurology focuses on the physiology of the nervous system and classical psychology is largely divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind. It thus shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals
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Personality Psychology
Personality
Personality
psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. It is a scientific study which aims to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces. [1]Its areas of focus include:construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes investigation of individual psychological differences investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals"Personality" is a dynamic[clarification needed] and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely[clarification needed] influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations
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Positive Psychology
Positive psychology
Positive psychology
is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",[1] or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".[2] Positive psychology
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Quantitative Psychology
Quantitative psychology
Quantitative psychology
is a field of scientific study that focuses on the mathematical modeling, research design and methodology, and statistical analysis of human or animal psychological processes.[1] Quantitative psychologists develop and analyze a wide variety of research methods, including those of psychometrics, a field concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.[2] Psychologists have long contributed to statistical and mathematical analysis, and quantitative psychology is now a specialty recognized by the American Psychological Association. Doctoral degrees are awarded in this field in a number of universities in Europe and North America, and quantitative psychologists have been in high demand in industry, government, and academia
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Social Psychology
Social psychology
Social psychology
is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.[1] In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences even when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others. They study conditions under which certain behavior, actions, and feelings occur
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Applied Psychology
Applied psychology
Applied psychology
is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience. Mental health, organizational psychology, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings. Some of the areas of applied psychology include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, legal psychology, neuropsychology, occupational health psychology, human factors, forensic psychology, engineering psychology, school psychology, sports psychology, traffic psychology, community psychology, medical psychology. In addition, a number of specialized areas in the general field of psychology have applied branches (e.g., applied social psychology, applied cognitive psychology)
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Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied behavior analysis
Applied behavior analysis
(ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.[1][2] It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or experimental research).[1] The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions. In contrast, ABA tries to change behavior by first assessing the functional relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment.[3] Further, the approach often seeks to develop socially acceptable alternatives to aberrant behaviors.[3][4][5] ABA has been brought to bear on a wide range of areas and behavioral problems
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Community Psychology
Community
Community
psychology studies the individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society,[1] and the relationships of the individual to communities and society. Community
Community
psychologists seek to understand the quality of life of individuals within groups, organizations and institutions, communities, and society
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Differential Psychology
Differential psychology
Differential psychology
studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it. This is distinguished from other aspects of psychology in that although psychology is ostensibly a study of individuals, modern psychologists often study groups, or attempt to discover general psychological processes that apply to all individuals. For example, in evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy, the mean performance of the therapy in one treatment group might be compared to the mean effectiveness of a placebo (or a well-known therapy) in a second, control group
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Consumer Behaviour
Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
emerged in the 1940s and 50s as a distinct sub-discipline in the marketing area. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is an inter-disciplinary social science that blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, ethnography, marketing and economics, especially behavioural economics. It examines how emotions, attitudes and preferences affect buying behaviour
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