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Hudson River
The Hudson River
Hudson River
is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
of Upstate New York, flows through the Hudson Valley, and eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean, between New York City
New York City
and Jersey City. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey
New Jersey
and New York, and further north between New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago
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Environmentalism
Environmentalism
Environmentalism
or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism
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Francis I Of France
Francis I (French: François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France
King of France
from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, and the beginning of French exploration of the New World
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Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles).[2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface
Earth's surface
and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe
Europe
and Africa
Africa
to the east, and the Americas to the west
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County (New York)
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,[1] in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French
Old French
conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount.[2] The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, Gau, etc. (cf
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Quaternary Glaciation
The Quaternary
Quaternary
glaciation, also known as the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
glaciation or the current ice age, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary
Quaternary
period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.[1] During this period, ice sheets expanded, notably from out of Antarctica
Antarctica
and Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets occurred elsewhere (for example, the Laurentide ice sheet). The major effects of the ice age were the erosion of land and the deposition of material, both over large parts of the continents; the modification of river systems; the creation of millions of lakes, changes in sea level, the development of pluvial lakes far from the ice margins, the isostatic adjustment of the earth's crust, flooding, and abnormal winds
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
(Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua,[2] French: baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada
Canada
with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi). It drains a very large area, about 3,861,400 km2 (1,490,900 sq mi),[3] that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec
Quebec
and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay. The Eastern Cree
Cree
name for Hudson and James Bay
James Bay
is Wînipekw (Southern dialect) or Wînipâkw (Northern dialect), meaning muddy or brackish water
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Tidal Estuary
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.[1] Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences—such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world.[2] Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene
Holocene
epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago.[3] Estuaries are typically classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns
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Giovanni Da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
(Italian pronunciation: [dʒoˈvanni da verratˈtsaːno], sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer[1][2] of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France. He is renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-ou
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Bear Mountain (Hudson Highlands)
Bear Mountain is one of the best-known peaks of New York's Hudson Highlands. Located partially in Orange County in the town of Highlands and partially in Rockland County in the town of Stony Point, it lends its name to the nearby Bear Mountain Bridge
Bear Mountain Bridge
and Bear Mountain State Park that contains it. Its summit, accessible by a paved road, has several roadside viewpoints, a picnic area and an observatory, the Perkins Memorial Tower. It is crossed by several hiking trails as well, including the oldest section of the Appalachian Trail
Appalachian Trail
(AT). As of 2015, the AT across Bear Mountain is continuing to be improved by the New York–New Jersey Trail Conference to minimize erosion and improve accessibility and sustainability as part of a project to rebuild and realign the trail that began in 2006.[2][3] The steep eastern face of the mountain overlooks the Hudson River
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Fjord
Geologically, a fjord or fiord (/ˈfjɔːrd/ ( listen), /fiˈɔːrd/ ( listen))[1] is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.[2] There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Chile, Greenland, Iceland, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Norway, Novaya Zemlya, Labrador, Nunavut, Newfoundland, Scotland, and Washington state.[3] Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi) with 1,190 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) when fjords are excluded.[4][5]Contents1 Formation 2 Fjord
Fjord

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Upstate New York
Upstate New York
Upstate New York
is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area
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Delaware River
The Delaware
Delaware
River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 14,119 square miles (36,570 km2) in five U.S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland
Maryland
and Delaware. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles (674 km) into Delaware
Delaware
Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May
Cape May
in New Jersey
New Jersey
and Cape Henlopen
Cape Henlopen
in Delaware
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Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India
India
Company, officially the United East India
India
Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC) was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century.[1][2] It was established on March 20, 1602, as a chartered company to trade with Mughal India[3] during the period of proto-industrialization,[4] from which 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported, chiefly from its most developed region known as Bengal Subah.[5][6][7][8][9] In addition, the company Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company (i.e. a company of merchants who buy and sell goods produced by other people) or sometimes a shipping company
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