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Huaca
In the Quechuan languages
Quechuan languages
of South America
South America
, a HUACA or WAK\'A is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. The term huaca can refer to natural locations, such as immense rocks. Some huacas have been associated with veneration and ritual. The Quechua people
Quechua people
traditionally believed every object has a physical presence and two camaquen (spirits), one to create it and another to animate it. They would invoke its spirits for the object to function. CONTENTS * 1 Huacas in Peru * 2 Huacas along ceremonial routes * 3 External links * 4 References HUACAS IN PERUHuacas are commonly located in nearly all regions of Peru outside the deepest parts of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
in correlation with the regions populated by the pre-Inca and Inca early civilizations
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Quechuan Languages
QUECHUA /ˈkɛtʃwə/ , also known as RUNA SIMI ("people's language"), is an indigenous language family , with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples , primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America. Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas , with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 13% of Peruvians speak Quechua. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
, and was disseminated by the colonizers throughout their reign
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R. Tom Zuidema
REINER TOM ZUIDEMA (May 24, 1927 – March 2, 2016) was professor of Anthropology
Anthropology
and Latin American and Caribbean Studies at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign . He is well known for his seminal contributions on Inca social and political organization. His early work consisted of a structural analysis of the ceque system. He later extended this approach, based on French and Dutch structuralism , to other aspects of Andean civilization, notably kinship , the Inca calendar and Incaic understanding of astronomy . Zuidema was born in Haarlem
Haarlem
, the Netherlands. He obtained a PhD in his home country and later moved to the United States. He had started studying Indonesian social sciences but later switched to anthropology of South America. The main reason for this was that Indonesia became independent of the Netherlands, and he could not work in the country anymore
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Sacbe
A SACBE, plural SACBEOB ( Yucatec Maya
Yucatec Maya
: singular sakbej, plural sakbejo'ob), or "white way", is a raised paved road built by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. Most connect temples, plazas, and groups of structures within ceremonial centers or cities, but some longer roads between cities are also known. The term "sacbe" is Yucatec Maya
Yucatec Maya
for "white road"; white because they were originally coated with limestone stucco , which was over stone and rubble fill. Many sacbeob can be seen by modern visitors to Maya sites; perhaps the most familiar is the one in Chichen Itza
Chichen Itza
running from the main group around El Castillo to the Sacred Cenote , which is traveled on by thousands of tourists daily. Few of the longer roads still exist in their entirety
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Catholicism
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Graffiti
GRAFFITI (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often within public view. Graffiti
Graffiti
range from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and they have existed since ancient times , with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
, and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In modern times, paint (particularly spray paint ) and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's permission is considered defacement and vandalism , which is a punishable crime
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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Quechua People
The QUECHUA PEOPLE are the indigenous peoples of South America
South America
who speak any of the Quechua languages . Most Quechua speakers live in Peru
Peru
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Bolivia
Bolivia
, Argentina
Argentina
, Chile
Chile
and Colombia
Colombia
. The most common Quechua dialect is Southern Quechua . The Kichwa people of Ecuador
Ecuador
speak the Kichwa dialect ; in Colombia, the Inga people speak Inga Kichwa . The Quechua word for a Quechua speaker is runa or nuna ("person"); the plural is runakuna or nunakuna ("people")
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Amazon Basin
The AMAZON BASIN is the part of South America
South America
drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi), or roughly 40 percent of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia
Bolivia
, Brazil
Brazil
, Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Guyana
Guyana
, Peru
Peru
, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela
Venezuela
. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
, also known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) area of dense tropical forest , this is the largest rainforest in the world
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Inti Raymi
The INTI RAYMI (Quechua for "sun festival") is a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
in honor of the god Inti
Inti
(Quechua for "sun"), one of the most venerated deities in Inca
Inca
religion . It was the celebration of the winter solstice - the shortest day of the year in terms of the time between sunrise and sunset and the Inca
Inca
New Year. In territories south of the equator the gregorian months of June and July are winter months. It is held on June 24. During the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
, the Inti
Inti
Raymi was the most important of four ceremonies celebrated in Cusco
Cusco
, as related by Inca
Inca
Garcilaso de la Vega . The celebration took place in the Haukaypata or the main plaza in the city
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Lima
LIMA (/ˈliːmə/ , Spanish pronunciation: , Quechua : , Aymara : ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru
Peru
. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón , Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao
Callao
, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area . With a population of more than 10 million, Lima
Lima
is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru
Peru
and the third-largest city in the Americas
Americas
(as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo
São Paulo
and Mexico City
Mexico City
. Lima
Lima
was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes
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Cusco
CUSCO (Spanish: Cuzco, ; Quechua : Qusqu or Qosqo, IPA: ), often spelled CUZCO (/ˈkuːskoʊ/ ), is a city in southeastern Peru
Peru
, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province
Cusco Province
. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year
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Huaca
In the Quechuan languages
Quechuan languages
of South America
South America
, a HUACA or WAK\'A is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. The term huaca can refer to natural locations, such as immense rocks. Some huacas have been associated with veneration and ritual. The Quechua people
Quechua people
traditionally believed every object has a physical presence and two camaquen (spirits), one to create it and another to animate it. They would invoke its spirits for the object to function. CONTENTS * 1 Huacas in Peru * 2 Huacas along ceremonial routes * 3 External links * 4 References HUACAS IN PERUHuacas are commonly located in nearly all regions of Peru outside the deepest parts of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
in correlation with the regions populated by the pre-Inca and Inca early civilizations
[...More...]

"Huaca" on:
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