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Hoysala Empire
The HOYSALA EMPIRE was a prominent Southern Indian Kannadiga empire that ruled most of the modern-day state of Karnataka
Karnataka
between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur
Belur
but was later moved to Halebidu . The Hoysala rulers were originally from Malnad
Malnad
Karnataka, an elevated region in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
range. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the then ruling Western Chalukya and Kalachuri kingdoms, they annexed areas of present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri River delta in present-day Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. By the 13th century, they governed most of present-day Karnataka, minor parts of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and parts of western Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana
Telangana
in Deccan India. The Hoysala era was an important period in the development of art, architecture, and religion in South India
South India
. The empire is remembered today primarily for its temple architecture . Over a hundred surviving temples are scattered across Karnataka
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Western Chalukyas
The WESTERN CHALUKYA EMPIRE ruled most of the western Deccan , South India , between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the _Kalyani Chalukya_ after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in Karnataka and alternatively the _Later Chalukya_ from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami . The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi , a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa , Tailapa II , a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani. For over a century, the two empires of Southern India , the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi
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Halebidu
HALEBIDU (literally "old city") is a town located in Hassan District , Karnataka , India . Halebidu (which used to be called Dorasamudra or Dwarasamudra) was the regal capital of the Hoysala Empire in the 12th century. It is home to some of the best examples of Hoysala architecture . Most notable are the ornate Hoysaleshwara and Kedareshwara temples. The city got the name "Halebidu" because it was ransacked two times during the invasion of Malik Kafur . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Temple complex * 3 Gallery * 4 Getting there * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Halebidu was the 12th-13th century capital of the Hoysala empire . The Hoysaleshwara temple was built during this time by Ketamala (around 1121 AD) and attributed to King Vishnuvardhana , the Hoysala ruler. It is believed to have been completed around 1160 AD by Kedaroja, the chief architect of Vishnuvardhana's son and successor Narasimha I (1142 - 1173). It enshrines Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara, named after King Vishnuvardhana Hoysala and his Queen Shantala Devi. The town was sacked by the armies of Malik Kafur in the early 14th century, after which it fell into a state of disrepair and neglect
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Belur
BELOORU (IPA: ( Kannada : ಬೇಲೂರು ) is a Town Municipal Council and taluka in Hassan district in the state of Karnataka , India . The town is renowned for its Chennakeshava Temple , one of the finest examples of Hoysala workmanship. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Transportation * 3 Agriculture and commerce * 4 Tourism * 5 Hoysalas * 6 Chennakeshava Temple * 7 Geography * 8 See also * 9 Gallery * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY _ Belur Temple Entrance A view of Gopura_ (tower) over the entrance at the Chennakeshava temple complex, Belur Garuda, the vehicle of the Hindu god Vishnu facing the Channakeshava temple in Belur Belur was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire . With Halebidu which is only 16 km away, this is one of the major tourist destinations in Karnataka. Belur is located in Hassan district. According to inscriptions discovered here, it was also referred to as Velapuri. The main attraction in Belur is the Chennakeshava temple complex which contains the Chennakeshava Temple (dedicated to Chennakeshava, meaning handsome Vishnu) as the centerpiece, surrounded by the Kappe Chennigaraya temple built by Shantaladevi, queen of king Vishnuvardhana
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Kannada Language
KANNADA (/ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkæn-/ ; ಕನ್ನಡ _kannaḍa_ ), also known as CANARESE or KANARESE /kænəˈriːz/ , is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India , mainly in the state of Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ), and by linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh , Telangana , Tamil Nadu , Maharashtra , Kerala , and Goa . The language has roughly 40 million native speakers who are called Kannadigas (_Kannadigaru_), and a total of 50.8 million speakers according to a 2001 census. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka. The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script , which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script . Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty . Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture , the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari (official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts . LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 sa ISO 639-2 san ISO 639-3 san GLOTTOLOG sans1269 SANSKRIT ( IAST : _Saṃskṛtam_; Devanagari : संस्कृतम्; IPA : ) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism ; a philosophical language of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , and Jainism ; and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval India and Nepal . As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia , it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _. Followers of Jainism take five main vows: _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _satya _ ("truth"), _asteya _ ("not stealing"), _brahmacharya _ ("celibacy or chastity"), and _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment"). These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. _ Parasparopagraho Jivanam _ ("the function of souls is to help one another") is the motto of Jainism
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication . If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be autocrats (absolute monarchy ) wielding genuine sovereignty; on the other they may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve powers , with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy ). A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada
Canada
and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union
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Nripa Kama II
NRIPA KAMA II (r. 1026–1047 CE) was an early king of the Hoysala Empire from the Malnad region of Karnataka and was possibly a vassal of the Western Ganga Dynasty and fought many wars against the Cholas. Thought unable to rout the Cholas from southern regions of present day Karnataka, he successfully ruled some regions in the Malnad area. CITATIONS * ^ Seetharam Jagirdhar, M.N. Prabhakar, B.S. Krishnaswamy Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p123SOURCES * Suryanath U. Kamath (1980), A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 1980 (Reprinted 2001, 2002) OCLC: 7796041 Preceded by Munda HOYSALA 1026–1047 Succeeded by Hoysala Vinayaditya _ This biography of a member of an Indian royal house is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nripa_Kama_II additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Veera Ballala III
VEERA BALLALA III (r.1292–1342) was the last great king of the Hoysala Empire . During his rule, the northern and southern branches of the Hoysala empire (which included much of modern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu) were consolidated and administered from Halebidu (also known as Dwarasamudra). During his rule, he fought numerous wars with the Yadavas of Devagiri , the Pandyan Dynasty of Madurai and other minor dynasties of South India. But it was his conflict with the invading forces of Alla-ud-din Khilji , and later those of Muhammad bin Tughluq , the Sultan of Delhi, that would alter the course of history of South India. For his courage and fortitude, the historians Suryanath Kamath , Chopra, Ravindran and Subrahmanian have called him a "great ruler". With his death in c.1343, South India saw the raise of a new Hindu empire, the Vijayanagara Empire . In the words of the historian Sen "the Hoysalas were the greatest among those who claim to be the makers of modern Mysore". CONTENTS * 1 Pandya and Yadava affairs * 2 Invasion from Delhi * 3 Notes * 4 References PANDYA AND YADAVA AFFAIRSIn c.1303, Veera Ballala III subdued the recalcitrant Alupas of Dakshina kannada. His attempts to reduce the Yadava power did not diminish either
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Vijayanagara Empire
The VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE (also called KARNATA EMPIRE, and the KINGDOM OF BISNEGAR by the Portuguese ) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India
India
. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty . The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic
Islamic
invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates . The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
, whose ruins surround present day Hampi
Hampi
, now a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in Karnataka
Karnataka
, India
India
. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes , Fernão Nunes , and Niccolò Da Conti , and the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
have revealed the empire's power and wealth. The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi
Hampi

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Hoysala Vinayaditya
VINAYADITYA (r. 1047 – 1098 CE), an able Jain king of the Hoysala Empire , who distinguished himself as an able feudatory of the Kalyani Chalukyas during his long reign. He helped bring many small Malnad chiefs like the Kongalvas, Chengalvas, Santharas of Humcha Shimoga and the _Kadambas of Bayalnadu (Vainadu)_ under control. After the complete disappearance of the Gangas during Chola occupation of Gangavadi , Vinayaditya brought some small portions of Gangavadi under his control. He was either a brother-in-law or father-in-law of Chalukya Someshvara I . NOTES * ^ Kamath (1980), p.124REFERENCES * Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka from Pre-historic Times to the Present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 1980 (Reprinted 2001, 2002) OCLC: 7796041 Preceded by Nripa Kama II HOYSALA 1047–1098 Succeeded by Ereyanga _ This biography of a member of an Indian royal house is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hoysala_Vinayaditya additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Ereyanga
EREYANGA (r.1098–1102 CE) was the son of Hoysala Vinayaditya and distinguished himself as a Chalukya feudatory during their campaigns against Dhara of Malwa . Though his rule as a monarch of Hoysala Empire was short, he served his father brilliantly as the _Yuvaraja_. He was a Jain by faith. REFERENCES * Dr. Suryanath U. Kamat, A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041 Preceded by Hoysala Vinayaditya HOYSALA 1098–1102 Succeeded by Veera Ballala I _ This biography of a member of an Indian royal house is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Ereyanga additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Veera Ballala I
VEERA BALLALA I (r. 1102 – 1108 CE) succeeded Ereyanga as king of the Hoysala Empire . He was a Jain by faith. His rule was short and uneventful other than subduing the Chengalvas and the Santharas. He made some unsuccessful attempts to overthrow the overlordship of the Western Chalukyas but was brought under control by Chalukya Vikramaditya VI . According to Sen, his rule was from 1100-1110 with the capital at Belur . An alternate capital was at Halebidu . REFERENCES * ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). _A Textbook of Medieval Indian History_. Primus Books. pp. 58–60. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4 . SOURCES * Dr. Suryanath U. Kamat, A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041 Preceded by Ereyanga HOYSALA 1102–1108 Succeeded by