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Howitzer
A howitzer /ˈhaʊ.ɪtsər/ is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.Pre- World War I
World War I
290 mm howitzer battery at Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
Fort, Denmark.In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European (and European-style) armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" (characterized by a longer barrel, larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher velocities, and flatter trajectories) and the "mortar" (which was meant to fire at even higher angles of ascent and descent)
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Portuguese Language
Argentina
Argentina
(South America) Indonesia
Indonesia
(Asia)[4][5] Senegal
Senegal
(Africa) South Africa
Africa
(Africa) Namibia
Namibia
(Africa) Uruguay
Uruguay
(South America)[6][7][8]Numerous international organisationsRegulated by International Portuguese Language Institute Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil) Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal) Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia) CPLPLanguage codesISO 639-1 ptISO 639-2 porISO 639-3 porGlottolog port1283[9]Linguasphere 51-AAA-a  Native language   Official and administrative language   Cultural or secondary language   Portuguese speaking minorities   Portuguese-based creole languagesThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Hussite Wars
Hussite
Hussite
victory, particularly for Moderate Hussites[1] Hussite
Hussite
church becomes free from the Papacy[1] Compromise between
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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Projectile
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.[1] Although any object in motion through space (for example a thrown baseball) may be called a projectile, the term more commonly refers to a ranged weapon.[2][3] Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory.Contents1 Motive force 2 Delivery projectiles 3 Sport projectiles 4 Kinetic projectiles 5 Wired projectiles 6 Typical projectile speeds 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksMotive force[edit] See also: Projectile
Projectile
motion Projectile
Projectile
and cartridge case for the massive World War II
World War II
Schwerer Gustav artillery piece. Most projectile weapons use the compression or expansion of gases as their motive force.Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions
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Trajectory
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time.[1] The object might be a projectile or a satellite. For example, it can be an orbit—the path of a planet, an asteroid, or a comet as it travels around a central mass. A trajectory can be described mathematically either by the geometry of the path or as the position of the object over time. In control theory a trajectory is a time-ordered set of states of a dynamical system (see e.g. Poincaré map)
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Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
is a suburban area on the coast north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the administrative seat of Gentofte Municipality. Bordered to the east by the Øresund, to the South by Hellerup
Hellerup
and to the north by Klampenborg, it is one of the most wealthy areas in Denmark
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Denmark
Denmark
Denmark
(/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈdanmɑɡ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,[N 9] is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway,[N 10] and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,[N 2][10] with the largest being Zealand, Funen
Funen
and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate
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Czech Language
Czech (/tʃɛk/; čeština Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna]), historically also Bohemian[6] (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/;[7] lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language
West Slavic language
of the Czech–Slovak group.[6] Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.[8] Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin[9] and German.[10] The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic
West Slavic
in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period
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Middle High German
Middle High German
High German
(abbreviated MHG, German: Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German
Old High German
and into Early New High German. High German
High German
is defined as those varieties of German which were affected by the Second Sound Shift; the Middle Low German
Middle Low German
and Middle Dutch languages spoken to the North and North West, which did not participate in this sound change, are not part of MHG. While there is no standard MHG, the prestige of the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
court gave rise in the late 12th century to a supra-regional literary language (mittelhochdeutsche Dichtersprache) based on Swabian, an Alemannic dialect
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Pike Square
The pike square (German: Gevierthaufen or Gewalthaufen, meaning crowd of force) was a military tactic developed by the Swiss Confederacy during the 15th century for use by its infantry.Contents1 History 2 See also2.1 Comparable formations3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]Pikemen of the Swiss Gevierthaufen in readiness positionFirst rank holding pikes at charge for horse defensive posture and second rank at charge for delivering thrustsFirst rank holding pikes at charge for combat and second rank holding pikes at port to avoid injuring front rank soldiers while waiting to replace them (in real combat first 3–5 ranks would hold their pikes at charge, depending on the formation density and pole length, so as all the charged pikes would have their points in front, not inside the formation)
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Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
(from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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North Germanic Languages
Insular Scandinavian languages:   Faroese   Icelandic   Norn (†)    Greenlandic Norse
Greenlandic Norse
(†)Extinct Norn was spoken in Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and Caithness
Caithness
in what is now Scotland
Scotland
until the 19th century. Extinct Greenlandic Norse
Greenlandic Norse
was spoken in the Norse settlements of Greenland
Greenland
until their demise in the late 15th century.The North Germanic languages
Germanic languages
make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and the extinct East Germanic languages
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Croatian Language
Croatian /kroʊˈeɪʃən/ ( listen) (hrvatski [xř̩ʋaːtskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language[6][7][8] used by Croats,[9] principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia
Croatia
and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a recognized minority language in Serbia, and neighboring countries. Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Muzzleloader
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel). This is distinct from the more popular modern (higher tech and harder to make) designs of breech-loading firearms. The term "muzzleloader" applies to both rifled and smoothbore type muzzleloaders, and may also refer to the marksman who specializes in the shooting of such firearms. The firing methods, paraphernalia and mechanism further divide both categories as do caliber (from cannons to small-caliber palm guns). Modern muzzleloading firearms range from reproductions of sidelock, flintlock and percussion long guns, to in-line rifles that use modern inventions such as a closed breech, sealed primer and fast rifling to allow for considerable accuracy at long ranges. Modern mortars use a shell with the propelling charge and primer attached at the base
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