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House Of Saxe-Coburg And Gotha
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(/ˌsæks ˌkoʊbɜːrɡ ... ˈɡoʊθə, -tə/;[1] German: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was one of the Ernestine duchies. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin. Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it has been the royal house of several European monarchies. Agnatic branches currently reign in Belgium
Belgium
through the descendants of Leopold I and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert
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Exile
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. It can be a form of punishment and solitude.[1] It is common to distinguish between "internal exile", i.e., forced resettlement within the country of residence, and "external exile", which is deportation outside the country of residence.[2] Although most commonly used to describe an individual situation, the term is also used for groups (especially ethnic or national groups), or for an entire government. Terms such as "diaspora" and "refugee" describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, and "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has been forced to relocate and argue its legitimacy from outside that country. Exile
Exile
can also be a self-imposed departure from one's homeland
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Deposition (politics)
Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.[1] It may be done by coup, impeachment, invasion, or forced abdication.[2] The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a bishop, from ecclesiastical office.Contents1 Notable deposed politicians 2 Notable deposed monarchs 3 Notable deposed bishops 4 See also 5 ReferencesNotable deposed politicians[edit] Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1852) Sam Ho
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Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500Republic of Bulgaria Република България  (Bulgarian) Republika BǎlgariyaFlagCoat of armsMotto: Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian) "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata"  (transliteration) "Unity makes strength"Anthem:  Мила Родино  (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino  (transliteration) Dear MotherlandLocation of  Bulgaria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Sofia 42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683°N 23.317°E / 42.683; 23.317Official languages BulgarianOfficial script CyrillicEthnic groups (2011[1])84.8% Bulgarians 8.8% Turks 4.9% Roma 1.5% othersReligion Bulgarian O
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Tsar
Tsar
Tsar
(/zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/) (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism
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Cadet Branch
In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe
Europe
and Asia, the family's major assets—realm, titles, fiefs, property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants. In families and cultures in which this was not the custom or law, as in the feudal Holy Roman Empire, equal distribution of the family's holdings among male members was eventually apt to so fragment the inheritance as to render it too small to sustain the descendants at the socio-economic level of their forefather. Moreover, brothers and their descendants sometimes quarreled over their allocations, or even became estranged
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Maximilian I Of Mexico
Maximilian I (Spanish: Maximiliano; born Archduke and Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph I. After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy, he accepted an offer by Napoleon III
Napoleon III
of France
France
to rule Mexico. France
France
(along with the United Kingdom and Spain, who both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with Mexico's democratic government) had invaded the Mexican Republic in the winter of 1861, as part of the War of the French Intervention. Seeking to legitimize French rule in the Americas, Napoleon III
Napoleon III
invited Maximilian to establish a new Mexican monarchy for him
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Anti-German Sentiment
Anti-German sentiment
Anti-German sentiment
(or Germanophobia) is defined as an opposition to or fear of Germany, its inhabitants, its culture and the German language.[1] Its opposite is Germanophilia.Contents1 19th century1.1 Russia 1.2 United Kingdom2 Early 20th century 3 First World War3.1 United Kingdom 3.2 Canada 3.3 Australia 3.4 United States4 Second World War4.1 United Kingdom 4.2 United States 4.3 Brazil 4.4 Soviet Union5 Post-Second World War5.1 Flight and expulsion of Germans 5.2 Forced labor of Germans6 In Israel 7 Contemporary Europe7.1 United Kingdom 7.2 Poland 7.3 Netherlands 7.4 Switzerland 7.5 European debt crisis, Greece and Italy8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links19th century[edit] Russia[edit] In the 1860s Russia
Russia
experienced an outbreak of Germanophobia, mainly restricted to a small group of writers in St. Petersburg
St

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Commonwealth Realm
A Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutio
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Patrilineality
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side[1] or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names or titles by persons related through male kin. A patriline ("father line") is a person's father, and additional ancestors, as traced only through males.Contents1 In the Bible 2 Agnatic succession 3 Salic Law 4 Genetic genealogy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksIn the Bible[edit] In the Bible, family and tribal membership appears to be transmitted through the father. For example, a person is considered to be a priest or Levite if his father is a priest or Levite, and the members of all the twelve tribes are called Israelites because their father is Israel (Jacob)
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Ernestine Duchies
The Ernestine duchies, also known as the Saxon duchies (although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg
Merseburg
and Zeitz
Zeitz
were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changing number of small states that were largely located in the present-day German state of Thuringia
Thuringia
and governed by dukes of the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin.Contents1 Overview 2 Background before Ernestine branch came into being 3 Detailed history of divisions in the Ernestine line3.1 Table 3.2 History4 Ernestine dukes today 5 See also 6 ReferencesOverview[edit] The Saxon duchy began fragmenting in the 15th century, as a result of the old German succession law that divided inheritances among all sons. In addition, every son of a Saxon duke inherited the title of duke
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Kingdom Of Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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