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House Of Saxe-Coburg And Gotha
The HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA (/ˌsæksˌkoʊbɜːrɡəndˈɡoʊθə, -tə/ ; German : Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
, which was one of the Ernestine duchies
Ernestine duchies
. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin
House of Wettin
. Founded by Ernest Anton , the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
, it has been the royal house of several European monarchies. Branches currently reign in Belgium
Belgium
through the descendants of Leopold I , and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Ernestine Duchies
The ERNESTINE DUCHIES, also called the SAXON DUCHIES (but the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels
Weissenfels
, Merseburg
Merseburg
and Zeitz
Zeitz
were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changing number of small states largely located in the present German state of Thuringia
Thuringia
, governed by dukes of the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin
House of Wettin
. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Background before Ernestine branch came into being * 3 Detailed history of divisions in the Ernestine line * 3.1 Table * 3.2 History * 4 Ernestine dukes today * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEWThe Saxon duchy began fragmenting in the 15th century as a result of the old German succession law that divided inheritances among all sons
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Cadet Branch
In history and heraldry , a CADET BRANCH consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch 's younger sons (cadets ). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
, the family's major assets—realm , titles , fiefs , property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture ; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants. In families and cultures in which this was not the custom or law, as in the feudal Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, equal distribution of the family's holdings among male members was eventually apt to so fragment the inheritance as to render it too small to sustain the descendants at the socio-economic level of their forefather
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Tsar
TSAR /zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/ ( Old Church Slavonic : ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled TZAR, CSAR, or CZAR, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, it is known as Tsarist autocracy , or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word Caesar , which was intended to mean " Emperor
Emperor
" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope
Pope
or the Ecumenical Patriarch )—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank
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Deposition (politics)
DEPOSITION by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch. It may be done by coup , impeachment , invasion , or forced abdication . The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a bishop , from ecclesiastical office
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Portugal
PORTUGAL (Portuguese : ), officially the PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC (Portuguese: República Portuguesa ), is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe
Europe
. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe
Europe
, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
Spain
. Its territory also includes the Atlantic
Atlantic
archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira , both autonomous regions with their own regional governments . At 1.7 million km2, its Exclusive Economic Zone is the 3rd largest in the European Union
European Union
and the 11th largest in the world
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Belgium
Coordinates : 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000 Kingdom of Belgium * Koninkrijk België (Dutch ) * Royaume de Belgique (French ) * Königreich Belgien (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch ) "L'union fait la force" (French ) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German ) "Unity makes Strength" ANTHEM: " La Brabançonne
La Brabançonne
" Location of Belgium
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Maximilian I Of Mexico
MAXIMILIAN (Spanish : Maximiliano; born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire . He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph I . After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy, he accepted an offer by Napoleon III
Napoleon III
of France
France
to rule Mexico. France (along with the United Kingdom and Spain, who both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with Mexico's democratic government) had invaded Mexico
Mexico
in the winter of 1861, as part of the War of the French Intervention . Seeking to legitimize French rule in the Americas, Napoleon III
Napoleon III
invited Maximilian to establish a new Mexican monarchy for him
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World War I
Allied victory * Central Powers ' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more..
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Anti-German Sentiment
ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT (or GERMANOPHOBIA) is defined as an opposition to or fear of Germany
Germany
, its inhabitants , its culture and the German language . Its opposite is Germanophilia . As a political phenomenon, anti-German sentiment became significant especially from the mid-19th Century, parallel with the Unification of Germany
Germany
and its rise as a world power
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Commonwealth Realm
A COMMONWEALTH REALM is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and shares the same person, currently Elizabeth II
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Germans
GERMANS (German : Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe
Central Europe
, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history . German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans
Germans
has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
since the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990, Germans
Germans
constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
divide
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Bulgaria
Coordinates : 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500 Republic of Bulgaria Република България (Bulgarian ) Republika Bǎlgariya Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian ) * "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata" (transliteration ) * " Unity makes strength
Unity makes strength
" ANTHEM: Мила Родино (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino (
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The growing desire for an Irish Republic
Irish Republic
led to the Irish War of Independence , which resulted in Ireland
Ireland
seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the state was consequently renamed the " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". The UK financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars

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Morganatic Marriage
In the context of royalty, a MORGANATIC MARRIAGE, sometimes called a LEFT-HANDED MARRIAGE is a marriage between people of unequal social rank , which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. Generally, this is a marriage between a man of high birth (such as from a reigning , deposed or mediatised dynasty) and a woman of lesser status (such as a daughter of a low-ranked noble family or a commoner). Usually, neither the bride nor any children of the marriage have a claim on the bridegroom's succession rights , titles, precedence, or entailed property. The children are considered legitimate for all other purposes and the prohibition against bigamy applies. In some countries, a woman could also marry a man of lower rank morganatically
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