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House Of Zähringen
Zähringen is an old German noble family in Swabia, which founded a large number of cities in the area that is today Switzerland
Switzerland
and the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The name is derived from Zähringen castle
Zähringen castle
near Freiburg im Breisgau, now in ruins, which the family founded in 1120. While the junior line which first assumed the title of Duke of Zähringen became extinct in 1218, the senior line (known as the House of Baden) persists and currently uses the title of " Margrave
Margrave
of Baden, Duke of Zähringen"
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Gebhard (III) Of Constance
Gebhard III (c. 1040 – 12 November 1110) was Bishop of Constance
Bishop of Constance
and defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments during the Investiture Controversy. Biography[edit] He was a son of Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, and a brother of Berthold II, Duke of Swabia. For some time, he was provost of Kanten, then entered the Benedictine
Benedictine
monastery in Hirschau
Hirschau
and, on 22 December 1084, was consecrated Bishop of Constance
Bishop of Constance
by the cardinal-legate, Otto of Ostia, the future Urban II. The see of Constance was then occupied by the imperial anti-Bishop Otto I, who, though excommunicated and deposed by Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
in 1080, retained his see by force of arms
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France In The Middle Ages
The Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the
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Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans[1] in 1056.[2] From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy
with the Papacy, and he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Italy and Germany
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Investiture Controversy
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.[1] By undercutting imperial power, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. According to Historian Norman Cantor, the investiture controversy was "the turning-point in medieval civilization", marking the end of the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
with the Germanic peoples' "final and decisive" acceptance of Christianity. More importantly, it set the stage for the religious and political system of the High Middle Ages.[1] It began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
and Emperor Henry IV in 1056.[2] There was also a brief but significant investiture struggle between Pope Paschal II
Pope Paschal II
and King Henry I of England from 1103 to 1107
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William III, Count Of Burgundy
Burgundy
Burgundy
(French: Bourgogne, IPA: [buʁɡɔɲ] ( listen)) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France
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County Of Burgundy
The Free County
County
of Burgundy
Burgundy
(French: Franche Comté de Bourgogne; German: Freigrafschaft Burgund) was a medieval county (from 982 to 1678) of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose very name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf ('free count', denoting imperial immediacy, or franc comte in French, hence the term franc(he) comté for his feudal principality). It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of Francia since 843. History[edit] See also: Franche-Comté
Franche-Comté
and Burgundy The area once formed part of the Kingdom of the Burgundians, which had been annexed by the Franks
Franks
in 534 and incorporated into the Kingdom of the Franks
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Agnes Of Poitou
Agnes of Poitou, also called Agnes of Aquitaine or Empress Agnes (c. 1025 – 14 December 1077), a member of the House of Poitiers, was German queen from 1043 and Holy Roman Empress from 1046 until 1056. From 1056 to 1061 she acted as regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son Henry IV.Contents1 Family 2 Marriage and children 3 Role as regent 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 References 7 SourcesFamily[edit] She was the daughter of the Ramnulfid duke William V of Aquitaine (d. 1030)[1] and Agnes of Burgundy. She thereby was the sister of Duke William VI of Aquitaine, Duke Odo of Gascony, Duke William VII, and Duke William VIII of Aquitaine
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Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty
Dynasty
of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany
Germany
and Gisela of Swabia.[1] His father made him Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
(as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V. On Easter Day
Easter Day
1028, after his father was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany
King of Germany
in the cathedral of Aachen
Aachen
by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne. After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy, as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033
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Renaud III, Count Of Burgundy
Reginald III or Renaud III (c. 1087 – 1148), son of Stephen I (Tête-hardi) and Beatrix of Lorraine,[1] was the count of Burgundy between 1127 and 1148. Previously, he had been the count of Mâcon since his father's death in 1102, with his brother, William of Vienne. He proclaimed independence from the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III,[2] but was defeated by King Conrad III of Germany and forced to relinquish all his lands east of the Jura. The name of the region Franche-Comté
Franche-Comté
is derived from his title, franc-compte, meaning "free count". In 1148, Reginald was traveling in France when he fell ill with multiple illnesses. He died so suddenly that he could not even appoint a regent for his young daughter.Contents1 Family 2 Notes 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksFamily[edit] About 1130, he married the young Agatha (c. 1120- April 1147), daughter of Simon I, Duke of Lorraine.[a][3] They had one daughter:Beatrice (c
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Baar (region)
The Baar is a plateau that lies 600 to 900 metres above sea level in southwest Germany. It is bordered by the southeastern edge of the Black Forest to the west, the southwestern part of the Swabian Alb known as the Heuberg to the east, and the Randen mountain to the south. The Baar contains the source of the Neckar (a bog in Villingen-Schwenningen) and the Danube. The sources of the Danube, the Brigach and Breg, originate in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald and Sankt Georgen im Schwarzwald and join the smaller Donaubach in Donaueschingen. The coldest point in Germany is also located at Donaueschingen in a low cold air basin which experiences its first frost as early as September 20 on average, earlier than the surrounding Black Forest. Landscape[edit]Hermann Dischler (1867-1935): Die BaarThe Baar is composed of several types of landscape
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Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor
Lothair II
Lothair II
or Lothair III[a] (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1133 until his death. He was appointed Duke of Saxony
Duke of Saxony
in 1106 and elected King of Germany
Germany
in 1125 before being crowned emperor in Rome. The son of the Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, his reign was troubled by the constant intriguing of the Hohenstaufens, Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Franconia. He died while returning from a successful campaign against the Norman Kingdom of Sicily.Contents1 Rise to power 2 Supplinburger dynasty2.1 Dispute with the Staufens 2.2 Relations with the Papacy3 Campaign against Sicily3.1 Actions in the north and east4 Issue 5 Ancestry 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksRise to power[edit] Little is known of Lothair's youth
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Kingdom Of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy
was a name given to various states located in Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy
Italy
and Switzerland
Switzerland
and includes the major modern cities of Geneva
Geneva
and Lyon. As a political entity, Burgundy has existed in a number of forms with different boundaries, notably, when divided in Upper and Lower Burgundy and Provence. Two of these entities — the first around the 6th century, the second around the 11th century — have been called the Kingdom of Burgundy
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Herrschaft (territory)
In the German feudal system, a Herrschaft was the fiefdom of a lord, who in this area exercised full feudal rights. It is the equivalent of the French term seigneurie and is often translated as "lordship" in English. In the feudal ranking of the Holy Roman Empire, it was the lowest rank in which a nobleman could exercise feudal rights. The next higher rank was that of a Freiherr
Freiherr
(baron)
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Duchy Of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Latin: Ducatus Burgundiae; French: Duché de Bourgogne, Dutch: Hertogdom Bourgondië) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were demoted to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France
France
in 1004 and in 1032 awarded to his younger son Robert via Salic law – other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy
County of Burgundy
(Franche-Comté). Robert became the ancestor of the ducal House of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the royal Capetian dynasty, ruling over a territory which roughly conformed to the borders and territories of the modern region of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Bourgogne)
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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