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Hopewell Culture
The HOPEWELL TRADITION (also called the HOPEWELL CULTURE) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BC to 500 AD , in the Middle Woodland period . The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States
United States
as far south as the Crystal River Indian Mounds into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in the north. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways. The Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over what is now the United States
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Cross-quarter Days
The WHEEL OF THE YEAR is an annual cycle of seasonal festivals, observed by many modern Pagans . It consists of either four or eight festivals: either the solstices and equinoxes , known as the "quarter days", or the four midpoints between, known as the "cross quarter days"; syncretic traditions like Wicca
Wicca
often celebrate all eight festivals. The festivals celebrated by differing sects of modern Paganism can vary considerably in name and date. Observing the cycle of the seasons has been important to many people, both ancient and modern, and many contemporary Pagan festivals are based to varying degrees on folk traditions
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William F Romain
WILLIAM FRANCIS ROMAIN (born 1948) is an American archaeologist , archaeoastronomer , and author. William Romain received his Ph.D. in archaeology from the University of Leicester
University of Leicester
and M.A. degree in anthropology from Kent State University
Kent State University
. He is Director of The Ancient Earthworks Project. He specializes in the study of ancient religions, cognitive archaeology, and archaeoastronomy. William Romain pioneered the use of LIDAR
LIDAR
technology for the analyses of ancient earthworks - most notably those of the Eastern Woodlands. In 2011 Romain led a team of archaeologists (collectively known as The Serpent Mound
Serpent Mound
Project) in an investigation of Serpent Mound
Serpent Mound
, in Adams County, Ohio
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Mica
The MICA group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate ) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage . All are monoclinic , with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals , and are similar in chemical composition. The nearly perfect cleavage, which is the most prominent characteristic of mica, is explained by the hexagonal sheet-like arrangement of its atoms . The word mica is derived from the Latin
Latin
word mica, meaning a crumb, and probably influenced by micare, to glitter
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Grizzly Bear
The GRIZZLY BEAR (Ursus arctos ssp.), less commonly known as the SILVERTIP BEAR, is a large subspecies of brown bear inhabiting North America . Scientists generally do not use the name grizzly bear but call it the NORTH AMERICAN BROWN BEAR. Multiple morphological forms sometimes recognized as subspecies exist, including the mainland GRIZZLY (Ursus arctos horribilis), KODIAK BEAR (U. a. middendorffi), PENINSULAR GRIZZLY (U. a. gyas), and the recently extinct CALIFORNIA GRIZZLY (U. a. californicus†) and MEXICAN GRIZZLY BEAR (U. a. nelsoni†). On average bears near the coast tend to be larger while inland grizzlies tend to be smaller. The Ussuri brown bear (U. a. lasiotus) inhabiting Russia, Northern China, and Korea is sometimes referred to as black grizzly although it is a different subspecies from the bears in America
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Equinox
An EQUINOX is the moment in which the plane of Earth
Earth
's equator passes through the center of the Sun
Sun
's disk, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size of the sun and atmospheric refraction . To avoid this ambiguity, the word equilux is sometimes (but rarely) used to mean a day in which the durations of light and darkness are equal. See Length of equinoctial day and night for further discussion. The word is derived from the Latin aequinoctium, aequus (equal) and nox (genitive noctis) (night)
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Solstice
The SOLSTICE occurs twice each year (around June 21 and December 22) as the Sun
Sun
reaches its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere . The seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes . The term solstice can also be used in a broader sense, as the day when this occurs. The day of the solstice has either the most sunlight of the year (summer solstice ) or the least sunlight of the year (winter solstice ) for any place other than the equator. Alternative terms, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, are June solstice and December solstice , referring to the months of year in which they take place. At latitudes outside the tropics , the summer solstice marks the day when the sun appears highest in the sky
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Observatory
An OBSERVATORY is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events . Astronomy
Astronomy
, climatology /meteorology , geophysical , oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Historically, observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant (for measuring the distance between stars ) or Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(which has some alignments on astronomical phenomena)
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Native Americans In The United States
In the United States
United States
of America , NATIVE AMERICANS (also known as AMERICAN INDIANS, INDIGENOUS AMERICANS or simply INDIANS; see §Terminology differences ) are people who belong to one of the over 500 distinct Native American tribes that survive intact today as partially sovereign nations within the country's modern boundaries. These tribes and bands are descended from the pre-Columbian indigenous population of North America
North America

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Richmond, Indiana
RICHMOND /ˈrɪtʃmənd/ is a city in east central Indiana
Indiana
, United States, bordering on Ohio
Ohio
. It is the county seat of Wayne County , and in the 2010 census had a population of 36,812. City
City
Flag Situated largely within Wayne Township , its area includes a non-contiguous portion in nearby Boston Township where the Richmond Municipal Airport is located. The city is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because some early jazz records were made there at the studio of Gennett Records , a division of the Starr Piano Company. The city has twice received the All-America City
City
Award , most recently in 2009
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Chillicothe, Ohio
CHILLICOTHE (/ˌtʃɪlɪˈkɒθi/ CHIL-i-KOTH-ee ) is a city in and the county seat of Ross County , Ohio
Ohio
, United States
United States
. The population was 21,901 at the 2010 census . It is the only city in Ross County and the center of the Chillicothe Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau in 2003). Chillicothe is a designated Tree City
City
USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Silver
SILVER is a chemical element with symbol AG (from the Latin
Latin
argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal , it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity , thermal conductivity , and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite . Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper , gold, lead , and zinc refining . Silver
Silver
has long been valued as a precious metal . Silver
Silver
metal is used in many bullion coins , sometimes alongside gold : while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal . Its purity is typically measured on a per-mille basis; a 94%-pure alloy is described as "0.940 fine"
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Ross County, Ohio
ROSS COUNTY is a county located in the Appalachian region of the U.S. state of Ohio
Ohio
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 78,064. Its county seat is Chillicothe , the first and third capital of Ohio. Established on August 20, 1798, the county is named for Federalist Senator James Ross of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. Ross County comprises the Chillicothe, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area , which is also included in the Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Area . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 2.1 Adjacent counties * 2.2 National protected area * 3 Demographics * 3.1 2000 census * 3.2 2010 census * 4 Government * 4.1 County officials * 5 Politics * 6 Education * 6.1 Pickaway-Ross Career "> Countryside northeast of Chillicothe on State Route 180 According to the U.S. Census Bureau
U.S

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Raven
A RAVEN is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus
Corvus
. These species do not form a single taxonomic group within the genus. There is no consistent distinction between "crows " and "ravens", and these appellations have been assigned to different species chiefly on the basis of their size, crows generally being smaller than ravens. The largest raven species are the common raven and the thick-billed raven . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Species * 3 Extinct species * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term "raven" originally referred to the common raven, the type species of the genus Corvus, which has a larger distribution than any other species of Corvus, ranging over much of the Northern Hemisphere
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