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Hope
Hope
Hope
is an optimistic state of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.[1] As a verb, its definitions include: "expect with confidence" and "to cherish a desire with anticipation".[2] Among its opposites are dejection, hopelessness and despair.[3]Contents1 In psychology1.1 Hope
Hope
theory2 In healthcare2.1 Background 2.2 Major theories 2.3 Major empirical findings 2.4 Applications 2.5 Impediments 2.6 Benefits3 In culture 4 In management 5 In literature5.1 Symbolism6 In mythology 7 In religion7.1 Christianity 7.2 Hinduism8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksIn psychology[edit]Hope, which lay at the bottom of the box, remained
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Francesco Guardi
Francesco Lazzaro Guardi (Italian pronunciation: [franˈtʃesko ˈgwardi]; October 5, 1712 – January 1, 1793) was an Italian painter of veduta, nobleman, and a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting. In the early part of his career he collaborated with his older brother Gian Antonio in the production of religious paintings. After Gian Antonio's death in 1760, Francesco concentrated on veduta. The earliest of these show the influence of Canaletto, but he gradually adopted a looser style characterized by spirited brush-strokes and freely imagined architecture.Contents1 Biography 2 Mature style 3 Gallery 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Francesco Guardi
Francesco Guardi
was born in Venice
Venice
into a family of nobility from Trentino
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Awe
Awe
Awe
is an emotion comparable to wonder[1] but less joyous. On Robert Plutchik's wheel of emotions[2] awe is modeled as a combination of surprise and fear. One dictionary definition is "an overwhelming feeling of reverence, admiration, fear, etc., produced by that which is grand, sublime, extremely powerful, or the like: in awe of God; in awe of great political figures."[3] Another dictionary definition is a "mixed emotion of reverence, respect, dread, and wonder inspired by authority, genius, great beauty, sublimity, or might: We felt awe when contemplating the works of Bach
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Confidence
Confidence has a common meaning of a certainty about handling something, such as work, family, social events, or relationships.[1] Some have ascribed confidence as a state of being certain either that a hypothesis or prediction is correct or that a chosen course of action is the best or most effective. Self-confidence is having confidence in one's self. Arrogance or hubris in this comparison is having unmerited confidence – believing something or someone is capable or correct when they are not. Overconfidence or presumptuousness is excessive belief in someone (or something) succeeding, without any regard for failure. Confidence can be a self-fulfilling prophecy as those without it may fail or not try because they lack it and those with it may succeed because they have it rather than because of an innate ability
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Distrust
Distrust is a formal way of not trusting any one party too much in a situation of grave risk or deep doubt. It is commonly expressed in civics as a division or balance of powers, or in politics as means of validating treaty terms. Systems based on distrust simply divide the responsibility so that checks and balances can operate. The phrase "Trust, but verify" refers specifically to distrust. An electoral system or adversarial process inevitably is based on distrust, but not on mistrust. Parties compete in the system, but they do not compete to subvert the system itself, or gain bad faith advantage through it - if they do they are easily caught by the others. Much mistrust does exist between parties, and it is exactly this which motivates putting in place a formal system of distrust. Diplomatic protocol for instance, which applies between states, relies on such means as formal disapproval which in effect say "we do not trust that person"
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Joy
The word joy means a feeling of great pleasure and happiness.[1] C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis
saw clear distinction between joy and pleasure and happiness; "I sometimes wonder whether all pleasures are not substitutes for Joy."[2], and "I call it Joy, which is here a technical term and must be sharply distinguished both from Happiness and Pleasure. Joy
Joy
(in my sense) has indeed one characteristic, and one only, in common with them; the fact that anyone who has experienced it will want it again... I doubt whether anyone who has tasted it would ever, if both were in his power, exchange it for all the pleasures in the world. But then Joy
Joy
is never in our power and Pleasure
Pleasure
often is."[3] The causes of joy have been ascribed to various sources
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Horror And Terror
The distinction between horror and terror is a standard literary and psychological concept applied especially to Gothic and horror fiction.[1] Terror is usually described as the feeling of dread and anticipation that precedes the horrifying experience. By contrast, horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually follows a frightening sight, sound, or otherwise experience. It is the feeling one gets after coming to an awful realization or experiencing a deeply unpleasant occurrence. In other words, horror is more related to being shocked or scared (being horrified), while terror is more related to being anxious or fearful.[2] Horror has also been defined as a combination of terror and revulsion.[3] The distinction between terror and horror was first characterized by the Gothic writer Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
(1764–1823)
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Fear
Fear
Fear
is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events. Fear
Fear
in human beings may occur in response to a specific stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to body or life. The fear response arises from the perception of danger leading to confrontation with or escape from/avoiding the threat (also known as the fight-or-flight response), which in extreme cases of fear (horror and terror) can be a freeze response or paralysis. In humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning. Thus fear is judged as rational or appropriate and irrational or inappropriate. An irrational fear is called a phobia. Psychologists such as John B
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Frustration
In psychology, frustration is a common emotional response to opposition, related to anger, annoyance and disappointment, frustration arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal[1] and is likely to increase when a will or goal is denied or blocked. There are two types of frustration; internal and external. Internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals, desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict, such as when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, can also be an internal source of frustration and can create cognitive dissonance
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Gratitude
Gratitude, thankfulness, thanksgiving[1], or gratefulness, from the Latin gratus ‘pleasing, thankful’,[2] is a feeling of appreciation felt by and/or similar positive response shown by the recipient of kindness, gifts, help, favors, or other types of generosity, towards the giver of such gifts.[3] The experience of gratitude has historically been a focus of several world religions.[4] It has also been a topic of interest to ancient, medieval and modern philosophers, and continues to engage contemporary western philosophers.[5] The systematic study of gratitude within psychology only began around the year 2000, possibly because psychology traditionally focused more on understanding distress than on understanding positive emotions
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Grief
Grief
Grief
is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, it also has physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, cultural, spiritual and philosophical dimensions. While the terms are often used interchangeably, bereavement refers to the state of loss, and grief is the reaction to that loss. Grief
Grief
is a natural response to loss
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Guilt (emotion)
Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a universal moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation.[1] Guilt is closely related to the concept of remorse.Contents1 Psychology1.1 Defenses 1.2 Behavioral responses 1.3 Lack of guilt in psychopaths 1.4 Causes1.4.1 Evolutionary theories 1.4.2 Social psychology theories 1.4.3 Other theories2 Collective guilt 3 Cultural views3.1 Etymology 3.2 In literature 3.3 In the Christian Bible4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksPsychology[edit] Guilt is an important factor in perpetuating obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms.[2] Guilt and its associated causes, merits, and demerits are common themes in psychology and psychiatry
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Happiness
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by, among others, positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.[1] Happy mental states may reflect judgements by a person about their overall well-being.[2] Since the 1960s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology, social psychology, clinical and medical research and happiness economics. In philosophy, happiness is translated from the Greek concept of eudaimonia, and refers to the good life, or flourishing, as opposed to an emotion.Contents1 Definition 2 Philosophy 3 Religion3.1 Eastern religions3.1.1 Buddhism 3.1.2 Hinduism 3.1.3 Confucianism3.2 Abrahamic religions3.2.1 Judaism 3.2.2 Roman Catholicism3.3 Islam4 Psychology4.1 Theories4.1.1 Maslow's hierarchy of needs 4.1.2 Self-determination theory 4.1.3 Positive psychology4.2 Measu
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Hatred
Hatred or hate is a deep and extreme emotional dislike, especially invoking feelings of anger or resentment. It can be directed against individuals, groups, entities, objects, behaviors, or ideas. Hatred is often associated with feelings of anger, disgust and a disposition towards hostility.Contents1 Ethnolinguistics 2 Psychoanalytic views 3 Neurological research 4 Legal issues 5 Religious perspectives5.1 Christianity6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingEthnolinguistics[edit]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)This article possibly contains original research
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Pleasure
Pleasure
Pleasure
is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking. It includes more specific mental states such as happiness, entertainment, enjoyment, ecstasy, and euphoria. The early psychological concept of pleasure, the pleasure principle, describes it as a positive feedback mechanism, motivating the organism to recreate in the future the situation which it has just found pleasurable and to avoid situations that have caused pain in the past.[1] The experience of pleasure is subjective and different individuals will experience different kinds and amounts of pleasure in the same situation
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Hostility
Hostility
Hostility
is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym for anger and aggression. It appears in several psychological theories
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